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HIS311: Sept 24

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Robert Bothwell

September 24, 2013 HIS311 Key Words Notes  If we look at the demographics and GDP we see that in mid 18 th century France is richer and more populous than Great Britain. If we follow that logic it should be that France should defeat Great Britain in any serious war. Britain had evolved a system of government and administration and finance that was superior to France and allowed the British to mobilize the resources they that had much better than the French. That was particularly true for the very expensive form of military expenditure- the navy. You have to keep it in being, it isn’t just something for wartime. It has to be professional. the British were much better at keep a navy built and supplied than the French were.  It was not just the raw figures of power, it is how you are able to put that power into use.  In Europe, France was bigger than England. In America England was bigger than France. The British had million people in their colonies by middle of 18 century. This was a population that was derived from the British isles, but France (the protestant Huguenots), Germany (protestants were willing to immigrate to America).  It is a society that is growing and prospering. By the middle of the early 18 century the colonist in the America’s was higher than that of the people at home. That is not only true of the British colonies, but of New France as well. Accounts tell us that the new French lived much better, eat and dressed better than those at home. One problem with that is that if there were million people in the British colonies, there were only 60,000 in the French  The French are divided into two colonies. - One is new France - Remnants of Acadia centered on Louisbourg.  There are also French speaking colonist who live in the British province of Nova Scotia. They had been left over by the treaty of 1713 and technically they were British subjects. The French government views them as a strategic asset. In the wars of 1740’s they had not supported the British. Hadn’t necessarily opposed them either, hoped they can sit the war out. The British were disturbed by the situation in Nova Scotia. In 1749 the British a new town in Halifax. This is the beginning of a new policy of the British for Nova Scotia, which is designed to bring Nova Scotia under control. That meant persuading French-speaking inhabitants of Nova Scotia to understand that they were British. And in the next war they must support the king.  In order to do that they had to take an oath. The oath would repudiate their allegiance to France and state that no matter what happened they would support king George II in London.  The Acadians refused and the British were ready for this. They had troops from Massachusetts. Massachusetts viewed Nova Scotia as its colony. It seized the fertile land o the Annapolis valley as a wonderful opportunity for the populace families of Massachusetts.  Massachusetts’s troops arrive in Nova Scotia under British command. They round up the Acadians and out them on ships for London. Some off them take off to the woods. The settlements of Acadia are distributed.  This is followed by an outbreak of direct hostilities. There was a French fort and the British claimed a colony as their own, and the French said no. The British attacked it and they took it.  As far as Canada is concerned this is the first formal hostility.  Further south, in Fort Duquesne, which was part of chain of French forts. That are designed to protect the French communication along the Great Lakes down to Mississippi, down to New Orleans. The French had extended themselves to build this. New France 60,000 people. How are they going to do it? They had to do it with the help of old France. There was always a French military garrison in New France, but that is expanded in the early 1750’s.  The governors of New France are preparing for war. They believe that they had to stop the British coming over the mountains. There were the Appalachians that ran parallel. .  British settlements had now reached the Appalachians. The British would come over the mountains and the French had to stop them. There was another reason to that. The French being insufficient numerous had to rely on the alliance of the native people of the great lakes and the Ohio valley. What you get is thinly scattered French troops around the mountains supported by native people. Without Native help that part of the French empire could not be defended. There are simply not enough French soldiers. They are not enough militia (citizen soldiers) to be able to supplement the regular army. That is why fort Duquesnes is important to the French.  George Washington aged 22, a very junior Virginian officers. He ventures into French territory to claim it into for Virginia. And the real estate company’s behind it. The eastern north American colonization can be viewed as a huge real estate proposition.  Washington tells the French to get out, they laugh at home, 1754 Washington is forced to surrender to a French force, and he is sent back to Virginias with instruction not to get back. All this gets back to London. London is the center of the empire. It is where all the decisions are taken. It is where they send the oney from, and where they get the troops. The British government in 1755 sends two armies to North America. These are the first serious British regular forces in north America. - One goes to virgina, and marches towards fort Duquesnes. - The other goes to New York. Marches up the Hudson, towards the bottom of Lake champlain. (lake champlain is part of the corridor that runs up between st. Lawrence? It is one of the few gaps between the moutains)  Two battles are fought. - One near for Duquesne. It is a disaster for the British. And this is where the British come marching through the forest. - The other one meets a French force coming down from st. Lawerence. The fight what is now ?? The British are victorious. The do not attempt to follow up their victory. These are regular officers, fighting regular battles, representing their regular governments back in Europe. It is the beginning of the 7 year war also known as the French Indian war in the United state.  The British know that the real battle will happen in Europe. When war formally breaks out in 1756 it occurs on a worldwide basis. A lot of the battles of the 7-year war are fought in Germany. It is fought through alliances. A lot of the war is fought between Austria and Prussia, or Prussia and Russia.  The British king is a property owner in Germany. He is the grand duke of Hanover. And the British have to protect that too. The British were forced to fight in Germany and else where  The French knowing the war is coming sent a small army to North America. These are regular type of soldiers. - They sent a general named Montcalm. He arrives in Québec and is the general in charge of the French army. - The governor of Québec is Vaudreui. He is jealous of Montcalm and as a result for the 5 years of the war which are fought in North America the French enjoy a division of command. The governor and general are always fighting. - There is a finance guy- the intendent and he is corrupt. The intendent steals the money that the French sends over.  The British have 14 colonies from Nova Scotia down to Goergia, and each is independent of the other. - Each has a governor, but the governor cannot act with out the consent of a local elected assembly. So every British colony has its own miniature parliament. The governor cannot mobilize troops in that colony. He has to get the assembly to agree and to levy taxes-and they wont. Therefore, the defense of the British colonies falls on London. It helps to account for the disastrous record of the British in north American of the first two years of the 7 year war -  So despite having inferior forces in number, and despite having of governors just bothering him, Montcalm de
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