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HIS317H1 (43)

Lecture 2: Defeat, Revolution, and the "Stab in the Back:" The Weimar Republic

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Jenkins

Lecture 2: Defeat, Revolution, and the Stab in the Back: The Weimar Republic I. Germany and the First World War The assassination of Austrian Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, June 28th 1914 The July Crisis (June 28th-August 4th, 1914): Germanys support for Austria-Hungary, the blank cheque The War in the West: the Schlieffen Plan (1905-06) and the Battle of the Marne (September 1914) The War in the East: Tannenberg, the Masurian Lakes, the drive into Russian Poland War aims: the September Program (1914), Germanys expansionist desires II. Total War, 1916 The move toward military dictatorship, 1916 The Hindenburg Program Food crises, labor militancy: the home front splinters 1917-1918 The Labor movement splits: Majority and Independent Socialists (MSPD and USPD) Extreme nationalism in the Fatherland Party, 1917 III. The Treaty of Brest Litovsk, March 1918 Punitive Peace imposed upon Bolshevik Russia War aims achieved in the East IV. The Final Offensive, Fall 1918 V. The October Reforms VI. The November Revolution Mutiny in Kiel, November 4, 1918 The Revolution spreads through Germany Revolution in Berlin November 9, 1918: the Republic declared, twice Friedrich Ebert and General Groener: the pact of November 10th VII. The Stab in the Back Legend (Dolchstosslegende) VIII. The Two Declarations: Scheidemann and Liebknecht -Weimar Republic is the post-WWI German govt -numerous govt, essentially ungovernable in its later yrs -Hitler attempts to come to power via a coup detat, and thrown in jail in 1923-1924 -decides to come about power legally via politics -but actually comes in to power during the 1930s world eco. depression -experiment at German democracy, fails, and Nazi Germany comes to power -question of did it fail on its own or was it destroyed by the Nazi party -Weimar Republic (1919-193) -named after a town in eastern Germany, very traditional town in the middle of Germany -associated with the great figures of German literature, of German classics -revolution going on in Berlin, coming out of the monarchal govt, fear of a Bolshevik revolution in 1919 -so it moves to Weimar -republic is very liberal, powered by ideals of social justice and equality -had a democratic franchise, incl. women, voted in Jan 1919 -open to full participation of minorities, incl. German Jews -had full participation in top professions and banks -but had limit to rising in politics though, often restricted to Christians -Albert Bellin, friend of Kaiser, head of Hamburg, a large profitable ship
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