Class Notes (808,045)
Canada (493,031)
History (3,202)
HIS351Y1 (19)

HIS351 September 24 - World War I and the February Revolution

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Professor Bernstein

HIS351 – September 24, 2012 1 Summing up 1905  Most of Russia revolted from January to October  Duma dismissed in 1906 when they were too liberal and then again in 1907  1905 was a 'dress rehearsal' for the real revolution  Showed that there was a self-conscious working class with an awareness of it's collective needs  It can be construed as a bourgeois revolution o According to Marxist theory you can't have a socialist revolution without first a bourgeois one  The autocracy was in trouble because Nicholas II did too little too late Russian Revolution of 1917: Historiography  Traditionalist view o The impact of the war is incredibly important for providing the spark for revolution o Agreed with the liberals that Russia was on the path to a liberal democracy o The war ends these positive developments however o February was a social revolution, October was a political revolution o Everyone got behind getting rid of the tsar in February o Bolsheviks led the October revolution  Revisionist view o There were fundamental rifts in society that sparked the revolution o 1914 strikes before the war is an example of this, they were a revolutionary moment o There were 2 revolutions  The political one got rid of the tsar and the social one was ongoing and ended in October  It’s a political revolution and a social revolution that engulfs the political one and in the end takes it over o By social revolution it's a war between haves and have-nots in society WW1 and background to the revolution  Russia was unprepared for the shit that went down in WW1 o Big army, no training, no money, no supplies, poor babies  No one liked Nicholas II o Lost support of everyone for the autocracy  There was a social crisis at the bottom of the social hierarchy HIS351 – September 24, 2012 2 o The peasants were hungry, they wanted food, they wanted money, they wanted the nobles and the landowners to fuck off  The outskirts of the empire didn't want to be a part of the Russian Empire *cough, cough* Ukraine  Workers wanted economic gains and they weren't being given them February Revolution  February 22: Putilov workers were locked out  February 23: International Women's Day march combines with bread fears, real start of the revolution  February 24: Continuation of massive strikes  February 25: Tsar is unimpressed - orders quelling o Cossacks didn't follow orders, no one followed orders  February 26 - 27: Garrison mutinies  March 2: Tsar abdicates but no one wants to assume power o Grand Duke Mikhail, Nicholas' uncle, refused the tsar position Dual Power  Provisional government that was formed after the tsar abdicated o Filled out the tsar ministries o Mostly liberals o Cared about continuing the war and about maintaining order  Planned a constituent assembly that would create a government for new Russia but they weren't willing to have one while Russia was at war and therefore was postponed indefinitely  The Petrograd Soviet was the other side of the dual power o It was a council that was formed in basically every city of the empire o Represented workers and soldiers and was modeled on the 1905 soviets o Mostly organized by the Mensheviks (SD and SR) who dominated until Sept 1917 o Represented the real power in the city because they had the support of the army and the workers o The PG couldn't do anything without the Soviets consent o Because of Marxist doctrine although the soviet didn't agree with the PG they were content to let it do it's thing because they needed them to have a revolution and bourgeois development before they could have their socialist revolution o Defenism = war without annexations HIS351 – September 24, 2012 3 Initial Accomplishments  Extension of national sovereignty (Finland and Poland)  Expansion of national rights particularly for the Jews o They were able to be in more places than Poland and the Ukraine, they were able to be all over the empire without these 'special documents' o Called the pale of settlements  End of estates, defining markers between social status  Freedom of press, assembly, unions  Amnesty for political prisoners Bolsheviks and PG  Initially oppose cooperation  Returning figures urge cooperation  Lenin returns and opposes government o Socialist revolution now o Defeatism o Opposed by some within party o Radicalism soon to be matched on streets  Lenin would be proved right because everyone's radicalism would soon match h
More Less

Related notes for HIS351Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.