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Chin Lim (107)
Lecture 2

HIS385 Summer 2012 Lecture 2.docx

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Chin Lim

Tang dynasty (618-907)  Lime kilns, coins, pottery  Construction, trade South China – North Vietnam split, 1000 CE  Chinese political fragmentation  Vietnamese independence  HK area under Chinese rule Sony dynasty (960-1279)  Chinese settlers  Soldiers in Tuen Mun  Setup by ethinic chinese Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)  Mongol rule (not ethnic Chinese) o Ghenghis khan early 12 th century) his grandson conquered all of China and setup this dynasty.  Chinese refugees o Fled Northern China, to the South part of this area included Hong Kong  Harbor in Tuen Mun o Allowed trade to many merchants in South East Asia  Pearl River – Southeast Asia  Buddhism in China  In addition to a more well-known root the Buddhism took with the Chinese, main path of Buddhism took the Silk Road  Southern Route took place through Hong Kong  Not quite the same as the Northern Version  N. Chinese and Yue intermarriage - Cantonese people? o Speculation** - Anthropologist believe that there was a marriage between N Chinese and the indigenous Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)  Xin-an (New Peace) country o Another takeover o Ethnic Chinese  Salt production at Kowloon Bay  Pearls at Tolo Harbor Qing Dynasty (166-1911)  Set up by Manchu People o N. Korea, N-E. China area  Last imperial dynasty  Lots of Pirating Rebels o Stationed in Taiwan  Coastal evacuation, (1660s – 1670s) o Effort to fight piracy o People were forced to move inland 200 miles. o This was done to try and stop the supply lines to Taiwan o By 1670‟s rebels were suppressed and removed as a major threat  Evacuation order was lifted.  Original villagers + Hakka (“guest people”)  Fishing, farming villages: (2 villages) o Single surname: patrilineal (male line was dominant_  Men got all assets and resources the family had  Women were brought from external villages o Multi-surnames  Not able to trace history through same ancestor   Walled villages o Structures were similar in both kinds of villages  Land Developments: dykes embankments, terraces, land reclamation (Shatin) o Goal was to provide irrigation for rice farming  Coastal trade, periodic markets: o Cheung Chau, Taipo – W. island of Hong Kong  Hong Kong island ceded, 1841 o British Arrive Found of a Crown Colony  “Hong Kong became a British colony as a result of the Opium War” o consider the reasons that lead to the open war o not entirely because of Opium  Worldviews - Trade - War  Colony th  Sino-centric world view, circa 19 century o Sino Latin word for China o From beginning of pre-historic period, all the way to the 19 th century  According to this world view, China was the Centre of the world.  China itself is referred to as a middle kingdom o Celestial Dynasty for “all under Heaven”  Dynasty would rule all of the heaven o Culture as identity culturalism  Based on this world view Chinese would take this idea that Chinese were heavenly. Comes from Confucianism, being Chinese makes you a part of this culture, you have to except the superiority of Chinese, Confucianism, and the Celestial Dynasty o Chinese vs. Barbarians  If you are not Chinese then essentially you are a Barbarian. Focus on culturalism as opposed to the British who focused on Nationalism. Euro-centric worldview, circa 19 thcentury  Nation-state as identity  nationalism  Relations between equals Clash between China and West inevitable  Nationalism vs. Culturalism o Culturalism:  Tributism  Send exotic goods from your country to Chinese Emperor once a year.  Did so out of a respect and fear from invasion.  Would do 3 kneeling and 9 bows.  Idea was to humiliate non-Chinese and highlight the superiority of emperor  Would do this for:  1 protection from invasion from China  2 trading with China   Globalization of trade, 16 th– 18 th cent. o Portugal, Spain, Britain, Netherlands o Spice and souls  Pepper – Indonesia  Rhubarb – China  Porcelain - China o Imperialism a prestigious deed  Considered a good thing to be an imperialist  Looking for glory, power and wealth  Raising your nation‟s glory above other states th  End of 20 century imperialism is considered bad  Pre-modern period it is good  Civilizing mission o Missionaries looking to save Asian souls and to civilize  Merchantism – Bottom of the Social Chain Confucianism. Industrial Revolution, late 18 th– 19 thcent.  Mass production o Need 2 key ingredients 1. Need a method of how to sell the surplus of goods Encouraged goods to be sold beyond Europe 2. Raw Materials Now that you are able to sell all these goods, you need a large quantity of raw materials to feed the growth and continued sale of items.  Europeans see huge economic potentials in Asia o Great Britain as world power  Brings Great Britain into account with China MaCartney Mission, 1793-94  Sent by King George III to China o To ask China to open up its Markets  British: trade mission  treaty to open China trade  Chinese: tribute mission --< emperor Qianlong‟s edict to George III  Chinese expected McCartney to pay tribute to Chinese emperor.  No sense of equality between Empreror and King George  Edict allows English to trade at one Chinese port, Canton o Westerners; restricted presence in China  Chinese trade conditions  Trade part of tribute system  Portuguese in Macau, 1535  Achieved from Ming dynasty  Overtime other Europeans used this base to trade with the Chinese.  Canton trade system, 1757  Seasonal trade  Could not trade year around  Trade season was Monsoon season  Access through cohong merchants  Not allowed to communicate with local government.  Only 8-12 Chinese merchants received approval from Chinese government to trade with foreign merchants  Gave these merchants huge amounts of influence. Lead to corruption.  If European had a problem with Chinese merchant, they had to write a petition to complain to officials. Method could take 6months to a year (depending on how much you were willing to pay)  Had to wait a long time for a problem to be solved  Subject to Chinese laws  Chinese laws were thought to be backwards, barbaric…  European concern over these laws   Despite concerns, British trade in asia  British East India Company (BEIC), est 1600 with Royal Charter  Group of share holders  Had monopoly on British Trade (90% of all trade)  “country traders” other 10% of private traders  had to pay fee to BEIC for right to trade in India  Tea trade – main want of Euro merchants  1700-24: 0.4 million lb. per annum  1800: 23.3m lb. p. a.  1808+: 26m lb p.a.  Tea tax – 16% o
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