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Lecture

Providing Feedback During the Learning Experience Dec 3.docx

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Department
Human Biology
Course
HMB200H1
Professor
Luc Tremblay
Semester
Winter

Description
Providing Feedback During the Learning Experience - Feedback is essential for learning. - Individualized feedback is also important. - In a clinical setting typically one on one vs. classroom setting has a high teacher to learner ratio. o Must make sure that you provide enough feedback to ensure TRANSFER (i.e learning). o Help them just enough - Objectives - To know definitions associated with inherent and augmented feedback o Ultimate goal is for people to rely on inheret - To understand the effect of augmented feedback on performance vs. learning - To understand the difference between knowledge or performance (KP) and knowledge of result (KR) - To understand the effect of KP and KR manipulations on performance and learning, and appropriately apply them in practical settings. Definitions - Augmented Feedback: Any information that “supplements the information that is naturally available.” – Swinnen, 1996 - Inherent Feedback: Information naturally available Ex. lateral displacement while walking on a beam might be a relevant cue that is not inherent. Which of the following sources of feedback cannot be augmented? - Visual - Aufitory - GTO - Muscle Spindles - Vestibular - NONE OF THE ABOVE  ALL of the sources of feedback can be augmented!  Ex. GTO- can get a better understanding with force plates or force transducers. Ex. Vestibular- Can feed information from accelerometer on to the tongue. Tactile information can be provided about a lost vestibular input.; also can provide some guidance by manually manipulating a body over a body in gymnastics, for example. Ex. Muscle Spindle- Can get a better understand bout length of muscle with goniometry Ex. Visual: Glasses; Auditory: Hearing aids! Augment Within or Between Senses - Video camera is important  quick replays provide a better representation of where you are in space. o Use different viewing angles - Binoculars - Hearing aids (can pick up auditory information more accurately b/c hearing aids have a high temporal velocity) - Vibration device for posture o But how do you provide enough feedback to make sure that when you take tools away, they are still good! Easy to improve performance, hard to learn. - EEG  Do not exploit them/rely on them… Definitions - Concurrent Feedback: During performance - Terminal Feedback: After performance o Terminal feedback can either be immediate or delayed o Immediate: Right after the movement o Delayed: with a time delay after the end of the movement - Distinct: based on a specific trial - Accumulated: based on a number of trials  not always possible. - Knowledge of result (KR): Information pertaining to the outcome of the movement o Ex. Someone falls on head  We are still inclined to give very obvious information to the learner “Hey, you fell on your head!” - Knowledge of Performance (KP): Information pertaining to the execution of the movement. o People often disagree with what is the right technique. o Needs to be taken with a grain of salt unless there is a very solid understanding of biomechanics (proper technique) **Figure 10.1** Which of the following augmented FB types is impossible? - Inherent Concurrent - Concurrent knowledge of result (don’t know the result during the movement. Sometimes you do though) - Immediate terminal o It’s not a good idea though! - Accumulated knowledge of performance (ex. focus on a few items that are salient) - All of the above are possible The effects of augmented feedback- learning - Often gives the illusion that learning is taking place! ** - Bilodeau, Bilodeau, and Schumsky (1959) o Linear position task  Can’t see limbs  9 and 14 mm away from target location o KR  person improves. Isn’t the person learning? o Quantify mean absolute error o What results looks like: NO KR  Don’t learn; KR  Learn o But they are missing a retention test. o They focused on the No-KR and the KR group for 19 trials o Compare first 5 trials WITH KR for the No-KR and KR-19 trial groups  the same! Knowledge of Performance - In practice o Kinematic FB (Position, velocity, acceleration) o Biofeedback (EMG) o Kinetic (Force)  Sometimes you need to explain the information that you gather via these methods to the learner. - Video Replay o Can learning be optimized with video reply? o Correcting cues. o Graph Subjective form rating  By giving correcting cues, people are performing better.  Could they become dependent on corrective cues? (Or video feedback) Knowledge of Result - Line tracing task: Effect of KR withdrawal in transfer - Nonsense LKR: “good job, keep going”  error was large in acquisition and transfer. - Right/Wrong: Improve, and is quite consistent in transfer. - Precise KR: good performance, more error in transfer, but still better than right/wrong. - Bad feedback is simply bad. Good feedback is good, but you must expect a decrement in performance in the transfer test. Definitions - Bandwidth KR: Tolerance limits on errors that define when to provide qualitative or Quantitative KR o Provide KR only when outside an error bandwidth  Only talk to the learner when they are making a mistake  Is no KR a form of KR? Yes. They know they did it right. Which of the following sports uses bandwidth KR as a form of augmented FB? Basketball - Not a source of augmented feedback because you know if you got it in on your own. Baseball - As a batter, you have an idea of whether it is in the strike zone, but augmented feedback helps. - Strike zone is the bandwidth Football Gymnastics Diving Knowledge of Result - Can vary bandwidth (0% margin of error, etc.) - First acquisition block, 0% and 5% BW groups do more errors than 10% BW groups! - People with 10% bandwidth start off better. They are performing better on acquisition and retention. - Amount of feedback given to people with smaller bandwidth is bigger! Possible explanation of this? - Neuromotor noise or variable error - Example: Red line - Constant error: difference between target distance and distance achieved - Variable error as well! IT is normal. It is very hard to minimize variable error. If use a bandwidth of 10% of amplitude: Don’t say anything to learner if they are in the red box (representing 10% bandwidth) o Let them know if they are undershooting or going to far. - If a learner always undershoots, and then overshoots on ONE trial. Do not say anything on the overshoot o Must identify a good error! Don’t say anything. o Reason why giving precise KR all the time is bad. It is likely to induce neuromotor noise (there is already a level based on variable error). - Must identify a good error!! Don’t say anything Problem with Bandwidth Error - Can’t provide Bandwidth KR in a classroom setting - Some people need different bandwidths based on skill. - Learner-determined KR: “KR provided after a trial, only if the learner is asking for it” o Why provide this?  They can start to figure out what works for them. o Increase learning compared to expert determined KR: even with the same KR frequency.  There is lots of literature on this, but how can we implement this? It is not easily deliverable.  Will kids be able to know when they need KR? Erroneous KR: Knowledge of Result containing a bias/error - If it is within your variable error range, wrong KR should INDUCE error. - Ex. There is a delay/bias when a light comes on and it when rally comes on. o Buekers and Magill (1995): +100ms bias on the anticipation task  if the person is 100ms early, then KR was considered a 0ms error.  If you are biased in your KR  will transfer bias to learner. o Effect is stronger if erroneous Kr is presented on every trial!
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