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HMB200H1 (140)

Lecture 2: 20th Century Neuroscience

5 Pages

Human Biology
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John Yeomans

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HMB200H1S Neuroscience L2 Jan 11 2012Improved Golgis method to see neuronsSilver stain to view whole neurons only 1 of neurons seen can see whole neuron structure History of Neurosciencethwo other neurons getting in way tangled webLecture 2 20 Century NeuroscienceIdentification of synaptic structures at boutons ie th20 Century Neuroscience Synapses and Neuronsaxon terminalsProposed neuron doctrine that all brain Sherrington Cajal and Pavlov classical conditioning information is carried in separate cellsreflexes can be modified by learning From Reflexes Proposed functional circuit diagrams in many brain to Synapses from Circuits to Learning18801920areas eg retina cerebellum spinal cord Transition from Electrical to Molecular Models hippocampus and cortex based on anatomy aloneions transmitters proteinsCalled greatest of all neuroscientistsAct pots due to ions movingvoltagegated channelsSynapses control by neurotransmittersrec protsGenes and Cognition2000 human genome projectstudying whole set of molecs mapping w mRNAunderstanding higher process ex cognitionSherrington 18701930Showed special principle in spinal cord not just act potsSynaptic changessynapse as functional connection btwn spinal neuronsMapped spinal reflexes monosynaptic disynapticdif connectionsmultisynapticProposed specific anatomical relationships btwn dif musclesdif nervesCajal improved the silver methodSynapses are excitatory or inhibitory muscles Incoming axon w dots surrounding cellboutons can inhibit other musclesseemed to surround cell body synaptic terminals Delay of 13 msso not simple conduction have presynaptic endingsbelieved they came from change in spinal cordseparate cells Golgi disagreed said fluid flow and Integrative actions of spinal cord near synapsesnot separate cellsActions in spinal cord novel more intelligent Cajal proved cells separate by saying have changes actions at synapsesat synaptic connectionsCajal proposed synapses at boutons where changes Mono and Disynaptic ReflexesmadeCame from poor family father medical demonstrator became anatomistStimulate muscles rootsMeasured timingintegratedProposed some connections are direct monosynaptic and some indirect some inhibitorysome excitatoryHappening inside spinal cordRamon y Cajal 18801930 Looked inside spinal cord using best microscopesstaining methods of age Golgi Schwann
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