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Lecture 18

Lecture 18

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Human Biology
John Yeomans

HMB200H1S L18 March 14 2012Electroconvulsive Therapy blocks depression quicklyBest across Mental DisordersLimbic Systems continued frontal areas Announcement Ramsay Wright on March 30sheep brainsAnterior cingulate stimulation for treatment resistant patients Remote long term memories affected by ECT and cingulate lesions Brain ChangesTreatmentBut works esp if needed to surviveIncreased activity in amygdala mediodorsal thal medialorbitofrontal cortex GenesDepressionBenzodiazepines inhibit amygdalamany other areasStrong genetic component for scizodepro Act on GABAa recs most neurons in braingaba soWomen more susceptible by 2X for depr and anxiety widespread effect o Testoertone in men makes them more optimistic more sure of o GABAa neurons in schizophrenia depression selves o Known to inhibit anxiety and fear via amygdala suggest o Other hormonal and stress factors in women increase in activity in amygdala is related to anxiety component o Men tend to have 15X as many sciz eps as women of depression o Estrogenprotective factor for scizo SSRIs inhibit orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex Also4070 genetic variance Age and environment important too activate hypothalamus feedingenergy system for weight loss o Depression tends to peak in middle ageless optimistic less o Produce long term effects in brain evaluation as well as energy worsens disorder so get more symptoms anxiety o Envtillness unfortunate circumstancesmake symptoms o Reduce activity in limbicfrontal cortex areas worse envt contributes almost half of variance but works w o Increase energy by activity hypothal feedingenergy centresgenetico Antidepressants slowly increase synapse growth ex inMany different loci 19 in one study dentate gyrusneurogenesisslow therapeutic action led to o Some combo of interacting genes by serotonin increase but not clear howCREB1 on Ch2q chromosome 2 was strongest single locus Gene o Act on old limbic systems that produce irrational thoughtsfor formation of longterm memories and growthCognitive therapy inhibits other frontal areas o Supports that longterm memories important for depressive o Improves longterm thinking about problems thinking o More effective together w SSRIs o crebgene transcription fsctor also important for reformingElectroconvulsive shock still used occasionally eg suicide poor synapses thru making new protsn
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