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Lecture 2

IMM250H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Pattern Recognition Receptor, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Ruslan Medzhitov


Department
Immunology
Course Code
IMM250H1
Professor
Dana Philpott
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2
- Frank MacFarlane Burnet: revised the side chain theory, suggested clonal selection
hypothesis
- Antigens stimulate the clonal proliferation of lymphocytes that make an antibody that
recognizes an antigen
- Normal microbiota
- Immunocompromised patients
- Primary pathogen: can cause disease in normal person with normal immune defenses
- Opportunistic pathogen: causes disease when the immune system is suppressed
- Virulence factors: allows pathogens to cause disease, like flagella and adhesins
- Pathogens possess genes encoding virulence factors
- Effector proteins: bacteria’s proteins that hijack host cells proteins to allow bacterial
entry
- Toxins are also a virulence factor that directly damage the host tissues
- Subclinical infection:
- Koch’s Postulates: determining causation, knowing how a particular pathogen causes a
particular disease
- The helicobacter pylori story
- H. pylori is a helical bacterium with polar flagella
- Robin Warren and Barry Marshall used Koch postulates to prove that H pylori causes
gastritis and gastric ulcers
- Superbugs
- Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): natural antibiotics kills microbes
- Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs): innate immunity uses this to detect pathogen
associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
- Ruslan Medzhitov and Charles Janeway: discovery of mammalian Toll
- Cells of innate immunity use pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect pathogen
associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
- Components of bacterial cell wall represent a source of PAMPs
- PAMPs are molecular structures on the microbes that are unable to be modified
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