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Lecture

08 - October 29, 2013.docx

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Department
Linguistics
Course
JAL328H1
Professor
Danny Harvey
Semester
Fall

Description
JAL October 28, 2013 Alphabets Greek has vowels – first time had consonants and vowels Transition period between Phoenician and Greek Several Greek scripts before Classical Greek – around Crete and Cyprus Crete is home to the Minoan civilization – no one knows what they spoke, what ethnicity background Many scripts on Crete assumed to write the Minoan language No one knows how to read them, what they say – undeciphered Phaistos Disk Script direction is spiral – either starts in middle and spirals outwards or starts on edge and works its way in Only one example of this script – on this disc – found in Crete at Phaistos It cannot be the only thing ever written of this script – it was not carved or impressed, it was stamped Linear A Third script that we do not know how to read Used in parallel at the same places at the same time – the interesting thing is maybe they’re different langauges written with different scripts, or the same language written with different scripts depending on purpose Linear A may be longer – maybe Hieroglyphics were names; and when wanted to write out sentences, use Linear A Linear A can be read – BUT THE LANGUAGE IS UNKNOWN – can read the symbols, sound out the text but not deciphered Do not know the language These three scripts from Crete Cyrpo-Minoan Cyprus – similar script development going on in Cyprus, a bit lagging behind Crete Cypro-minoan resmelbes Linear A – Linear B Like linear A – can read Linear A because symbols shared with B – two versions of the same script – i.e. Greek and Latin relationship Linear B can be read – sound AND meaning 200 signs – cannot do logographic because will run out of symbols; alphabetic – redundancy; syllabic or moraic language likely Language is old Greek Cypriot Syllabary Fifth or sixth script Conceptually coming from linear A – maybe taking shapes form cyprominoan but using the logic system behind linear B Then nothing – after Linear B vanishes, nothing in Greece, no writing Dark ages – culture, artistic pursuits fell out of prominence – no records from that era No writing until Gap between linear B and current Greek Alphabet Mutations – changes to better fit the new language Phoenician went west into Greece – Greeks borrowed it and Semitic language heavily based on consonant roots going into Indo-European where vowels are as much a part of words as consonants are Phoenician Aleph – glottal stop in Phoenician; no glottal stops in Greek “he” – pharyngeal h – not found in Greek; Alphabet takes shape with the vowels O is pharyngeal approximant – backwards glottal stop – Greeks hear it as “o” All the vowels in Greek system – I is iota – ota sounds like yacht - /i/ vowel Greek did not have the pharyngeal sounds Semitic did Kept the same order Aleph became alpha Bet became beta Etc Acrophony – first phoneme Borrowers are usually conservative Borrowed words were conservative – keeping old script intact as long as possible Thai spelling still represented Sanskrit – keep spelling as close to Sanskrit Pallava as possible Greeks didn’t borrow Phoenician culture or religion or literary history – only borrowing the writing system Unusually liberal with what they did with the script Further Greek experimentation Had a good idea of their phonological inventory – looked at script they had and looked at their language, some sounds missing – shows some experimentation going on – where different variations of greek do things in different ways Observing patterns – Invent Psi letter Aspirated stops – aspirated T – when look at Phoenician or Hebrew or Abjad order – stops with Tao but the Greek alphabet continues with extra letters at end of alphabet – due to Greeks noticining they need different sounds Get different kinds of Greek writing Ortholects – Eastern and Western Western in orange – mainland Greece Eastern – or ionic – what is now Turkey – Ionia is eastern variant of Greek script Ionic script the Athenians took to write their dialect in Greek Athens becae major contributor to classical Greece Today’s Greek is Athenian Greek and the writing ortholect is Ionic AKA Eastern Western – no longer found today Another variant in Crete Ionic vowels Glottal fricative in ionic dialects was lost – H sound was not needed anymore Poenician had het – so that letter became heta – het becae heta but in Eastern dialect, no h sound, so heard it as vowel ‘eta’ Eastern variants of Greek is vowel eta; in Western dialects, heard the h, gave heta Long vowel - new symbol invented Need aspirated consoannts, invent new symbol Athenians did have h sound but borrowed writing from Ionai where no h, so took left half of /eta/ turned it into a diacritic Half an of an eta into a diacritic The last big change is upsilon – pronounced /u/ fronted to /y/ Principles of Alphabetic Writing One of the big switches from hieroglyphic and semitic scripts is that no symbols with meaning attached Names do not mean anything and sounds do not mean anything so sort of completely abstract Semitic scripts are abstract Alphabetic writings completely strips away any meaning associated with the symbols Greeks looked at phonology and – being alphabetic, easy to add new stuff Alphabet can be divided into various things depending on how the cultures dealt with it With English, lost phonemic principles a while back – English is conservative ortholography – alphabet kept the same vs. Italian where writing system changed as language changed Shallow vs deep orthographies As a language changes, does the orthography change along with it? Shallow orthographies follow phonology Very shallow follow phonetics Follow phonology i.e. Finnish, Hungarian, Spanish Finnish changes the spelling – shallow orthography – so words are easy to spell – sound out in head In Hungarian – not perfect – some sound changes – ly and j pronounced the same as “ye” Very shallow orthographies – usually newly written languages Allophones of a single phoneme – differen letters Cayuga – d and t – in writing system use different symbols; underlying, it’s the same – voicing rules Putting in a lot of extra information not needed to represent the underlying phonology – Deep orthographies – morphem
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