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Lecture 11

LIN228H1 Lecture 11: lin228_handout11(1)

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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN228H1
Professor
A.Kochetov

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LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 13 Kochetov-1 Suprasegmentals I. Syllables Syllables are linguistic units found in all languages. All languages organize segments into syllables. Syllables are linguistically real in that many phonological rules must make reference to the syllable and speakers can recognize and count syllables easily. Phonologists have proposed that syllables can be defined as peaks in sonority. A sonority hierarchy has been proposed in which segments are assigned a sonority value. Snudex Sonority voowels 10 vowidels 9 hiwhels 8 glides 7 ɹ , l 6 nasals 5 s 4 vofriedtives 3 voiceless fricatives (not [s]) 2 vosiops 1 voicseepss 0.5 A sonority curve for flit: low V 10 mid V 9 high V 8 glide 7 ɹ, l 6 nasal 5 s 4 vd. fric. 3 vls. fric. 2 vd. stop 1 vls. stop 0.5 0 [ f l ɪ t ] The waveform for the word has a shape similar to that of the sonority curves. Recall that greater amplitude is perceived as greater loudness and that sonority relates to loudness. LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 13 Kochetov-2 Provide a sonority curve for the word and splendor. low V 10 mid V 9 high V 8 glide 7 ɹ, l 6 nasal 5 s 4 vd. fric. 3 vls. fric. 2 vd. stop 1 vls. stop 0.5 0 [ s p l ɛ n d ə ɹ ] The patterning of [s] is a problem for the theory that each sonority peak forms a syllable. In splendor, the initial [s] forms a sonority peak but it is not the nucleus of a syllable. Crosslinguistically, [s] is unusual in its ability to form consonant clusters that violate the requirement that onsets must rise in sonority. Parts of the syllable Nucleus: The sonority peak of a syllable. The only obligatory component of the syllable. Onset: Consonants occurring before the nucleus. Coda: Consonants occurring after the nucleus. Rhyme (or rime): A constituent consisting of the coda and the nucleus. Open syllable: A syllable which ends in a vowel, e.g. CV, CVV. Closed syllable: A syllable which ends in a consonant, e.g. CVC, VCC. Branching Node: A node which dominates more than one element. Heavy Syllable: A syllable with a branching nucleus is always heavy. A syllable with a coda consonant counts as a heavy syllable in some languages but not in others. Light Syllable: A syllable that does not have a branching nucleus and also does not have a coda consonant is always light. In some languages, syllables with coda consonants also count as light as long as they do not have branching nuclei. LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 13 Kochetov-3 Syllable structure for English plate: Syllable R(hyme) O(nset) N(ucleus) Co(da) p l e j t Japanese has morae in addition to syllables. Mora is a phonological unit distinct from the syllable; it’s a unit of time. Each mora takes approximately the same time to produce. CV or V = 1 mora; coda C = 1 mora; V: (VV) = 2 morae /iʧibaŋ/ ‘best’ 4 morae (i.ʧi.ba.ŋ) but 3 syllables (i.ʧi.baŋ) /nipːoŋ/ ‘Japan’ 4 morae (ni.p.po.ŋ) but 2 syllables (nip.poŋ) /toːkjoː/ ‘Tokyo’ 4 morae (to.o.kjo.o) but 2 syllables (too.kjoo) Japanese speakers are well aware of the mora as a unit. This is evident in word formation. For example, many compounds (mainly loanwords from English) have clipped forms consisting of no more than 4 morae. Guess the original English forms. (Note: Japanese phonotactics does not allow have consonant clusters and the language does not have /l/.) fCrfllmefglish de. ka.mʤeire..ru ʤi.ka.me wa.a.do pu.ro.se.s.sa.a wa.a.pu.ro ri.mo.o.to ko.ŋ.tu.ro.o.ru ri.mo.ko. ŋ ba.a.ga.a.ki ŋ.gu ba.a.ki. ŋ su.ta.a.ba.ksu.tu.ba.( ʔ) pu.re.e su.te.e.ʃo.ŋpu.re.su.te se.ku. ʃa.ru ha.ra.su.me.ŋ.to se.ku.ha.ra pu.r.u.ra.bŋp.o.ri.ku.ra po.me.t..to ŋ.su.a..ke.mo. ŋ ko.su. pouse.eu.re LIN228H1F 2012 – Week 13 Kochetov-4 II. Stress A stressed syllable is one that is more prominent than the surrounding syllables. Phonetically stress is realized as greater loudness, greater length, higher pitch or some combination of these. In many languages, stress is predictable and need not be listed in the lexicon. French: stress on the final syllable culture/kyl ˈtyʁ/ ‘culture’ agraafer/ ɡʁaˈfe/ ‘staple’ epouvantable /epuv ãˈtabl/‘terrible’ prononciation /p ʁɔnɔs̃ jaˈp/ronunciation’ electrocardiaogramme /elɛktʁokaʁdjɔˈɡʁam/ ‘electrocardiogram’ Scots Gaelic: stress on the first syllable /ˈʃexə̪/ past /ˈmɔːnʲə/ peat /ˈbðebəd̪ ð/ weaver /ˈpiːbəðɔxɡ/ piping Both of these languages are examples of quantity insensitive stress systems. This means that the stress pattern is the same whether the syllables are heavy or light. In quantity sensitive stress systems, the distinction between heavy and light syllables plays a role in stress assignment. Selkup ˈqɑ.lɑ L L ˈkə.tɯ.æLL pɑ.ˈkætLH ʃyː.ˈm
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