Fall Semester Master Study Guide
-Many events took place in the year 1492.
-The voyage of Christopher Columbus
takes place in efforts to find Asia by going to the Atlantic. This voyage sets the
discovery of the New World to Europe.
-The Spanish recaptured Granada from the Moore’s under the command of King
Ferdinand II of Aragon. In efforts to regain the territory, The two kingdoms
combined forces to fight the Moors.(Aragon and Castiles).
-The forced expulsion of the Jews form Spain.
-Title given to Queen Isabella I of Castileand King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
-The marriage of the two brought together the two crowns and has been said to be
an important factor to the unification of Spain.
-They were essentially the king and Queen on Catholicism
-They authorized the expedition of Columbus, which brought great wealth to Spain.
-Today Cusco is a city of Peru.
-Formerly the capital of the Inca Empire. Homeland of the Inca was based around
-As the center of the Empire, Cuzco was the place for Spanish conquistador Pizzarro
to go to.
-In this town Pizarro was able to divide and conquer the Inca Empire by playing one
side against the other. (Atahuallpa vs. Huascar)
- the two princes that fought each other for ruler ship of their fathers kingdom
-Miguel Hidalgo was a priest and Leader of the Mexican war of independence.
-Moved the masses with his speech called “Grito de Dolores”.
-In his efforts to liberate the Mexicans form the poverty, low living conditions,
hunger and oppression; Hidalgo led an army of roughly 90k man to fight the Spanish
army. His army was composed of mostly untrained farmers and Mexican civilians of
Indians and Mestizo descend. They faced the Spanish with great difficulty.
-Executed by firing squad on July 20 1811.
-Hidalgo became an icon for those who resisted the tyranny of Spanish rule in Spain.
Also a contributor to the ignition of the independence movement from Spain -Although it was not Hidalgo who made the independence of Mexico possible
(Iturbide was), he is considered on of the Fathers of Independence.
-El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega was a historian and writer of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
-He was half Inca half Spanish.
-Garcilaso was able to travel to Spain and his writing depicted the life of Incas in the
-El Inca can be contrasted with the definition of Assimilation. Instead, El Inca,
through the art of writing, brings back the cultural aspects of the indigenous
-The name “El Inca” comes from Garcilaso’s bitterness against the Spanish who did
not recognize his Father’s marriage because it was with an Inca woman.
-Wrote “Comentarios Reales de los Incas”
Hernán Cortés –
Spanish conquistador – Conquest of Mexico
Put in command of a conquest by Velázquez to explore interior of Mexico,
but later Cortés was given orders not to go
Despite this, Cortés continued with voyage to explore interior of Mexico
He then met Malinche (indigenous women who acted as his translator, also
believed to be his mistress)
When in Mexico, Cortés burned his ships so that his army could not retreat
Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlán, where he met Moctezuma, the ruler of the
Cortés was looking for gold
Cortés and his army held Moctezuma hostage, using him to rule tenochtitlán
and as ransom for jewels/ gold
Cortés had armies from Velazquez attempting to remove him, also Aztec
rebellions leading to wars that drove Cortés and army out of city
Cortés and his army gained back control, ending with Spanish take over, and
destruction of city – Cortés was put in charge of city (became Mexico City)
Related terms; “The conquest of Mexico”, Tenochtitlán, Moctezuma,
Spanish painter th
Paintings represented society in Spain in 19 century
o Napoleon/ French invasion
o That Spain had moved its capital from Madrid to Cadiz o “The Third of May 1808” – Painting that showed Spanish guerilla
being executed by French troops
Culture of urban guerillas (Spanish resistance to French)
Can be used with terms; Bonaparte brothers (French invaders), 1810
(painted about events occurring during this time)
Created by James Monroe – President of America (1823)
“No power from Europe will invade American continent, if this happens
America will intervene and help remove power”
When Napoleon’s nephew Maximilian of Austria invaded and conquered
Mexico becoming the president the US followed promise in doctrine by
removing and executing Maximilian
o Maximilian held power from 1864-67 – the Americans did not
immediately respond because they were fighting in the civil war at the
time (1861- 1865)
o Maximilian executed instead of just being sent back to Europe to
create a message to the Europeans, that they cannot control/exploit
Related to terms; “independence from Spain”
Mio Cid “El Cid” – Spanish Icon
War hero during the Spanish inquisition
Mercenary – fought for whatever side gave him more (Spanish vs.
“Cantar de Mio Cid” – Songs of Mio Cid (Rodrigo Diaz) – very old Spanish
Poem – many films about him portraying him as war hero - all apart of the
legend/ history of the Spanish inquisition that ended in 1492
Related to terms; 1492
Talked of the possibility of social stratification
Aztec god - Serpent with feathers – depicted in many codices and Aztec
pictographs – represented as statues around temples
Aztec religion contained many Gods
Used in many Mexican movement groups – Chicano Student Movement
o Shows powerfulness of symbolism
Related to terms; Moctezuma, Cortés,
, Teotihuacán, “The conquest of Mexico”
1: Malinche: Herene Cortes mistress She is also known as Dona Marina, a Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf
Coast, around the Vera Cruz Area. She was one of the 20 female servants that was
given to the Spaniards by the natives of Tabasco in 1519, she was the daughter of
She played an important role in the Spanish conquest of Mexico as she was
able to speak Nahuatl, Mayan, and eventually Spanish. She therefore acted as an
intermediary between the indigenous people that they traversed across battles and
the conquest, and was Hernan Cortes’ interpreter and advisor throughout it all.
Afterwards, she became his mistress and gave birth to his first son, Martin ( one of
the first Mestizos reported) in 1522.
She is at times embodied as symbol of treachery, other times as the
quintessential victim, and at times as the symbolic mother of the new Mexican
2: Jesuit Reductions:
This was a type of settlement set up for the Indigenous people by the Jesuit
Order around the 17-18 centuries. What was peculiar about he strategy of these
reductions (reducciones) is that they gathered native populations into these centres
in order to Christianize, tax, and govern them more efficiently. Unlike the rest of the
indigenous settlements, the Jesuit reductions only expected the indigenous to
convert to Christianity, but not necessarily to convert or adopt the European
They were primarily spotted in Paraguay with the Tupi-Guarani people, and
later were seen in areas of Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia. They used Indian labour to
become economically successful and independent. Through this, they were able to
build their own defensive forces and resist slave raids and enjoy a high degree of
The Jesuits were founded in 1540 in Europe, and they did not arrive in the
New world until about 1570, relatively late compared to the Dominicans and the
3: Francisco Pizarro (1471-1541)
He was a Spanish conquistador, known for having conquered the Inca Empire
in Peru. He was a distant cousin of Hernan Cortes. The reports of Cortes’ success in
Mexico and of Peru’s riches continually urged Pizarro to try and conquer the Inca
Empire in 1524, 1526 and finally successfully in 1534.
He returned to Spain in 1528 to apply directly to the King Charles V, and it
was actually Queen Isabella who granted him the permission for the expedition,
along with considerable authority over any lands conquered during the expedition. Around 1532 when Pizarro and his men landed in Coasts near Ecuador, they
went inland and found themselves in the midst of an Incan civil war. Pizarro tried to
make a deal with Atahualpa, the Incan chief at the time, but he refused.
This led to the attack of the Incan Army in ‘The Battle of Cajamarca’ in 1532.
The Spanish were successful, killed all of Atahualpa’s guard, and after he had agreed
to meet with the Spanish, they took Atahualpa captive.
They had held him ransom, and Pizarro received 1 room filled with Gold and
2 filled with Silver. Even still, Pizarro tried Atahualpa and convicted him of having
killed his brother and of planning against Pizarro. He was executed in July 1533.
Later that year, Pizarro invaded Cuzco with indigenous troops ad sealed the
conquest of Peru. Atahualpa’s wife, who at the time of his death was only 10 years
old, later became Pizarro’s mistress and borne him two sons: Juan and Francisco.
Was the capital of the Aztec Empire. When the Spanish first arrive, they
marveled at its beauty. To many, it as unlike anything they had ever seen, compared
it to paradise. They were impressed with the buildings, the construction of the road
paths and so forth.
The siege in 1521 by Hernan Cortes was the final battle that led to the fall of
the Aztec civilization. Cortes led the expedition into Mexico against Velaquez’s, his
During the first attempt in 1519, Moctezuma, the chief of the Aztecs, had sent
group of noblemen and emissaries to meet with Cortes; they had brought him
golden Jewelry, which really pleased him. Eventually, they had him captive.
After a while, Cortes had to retreat because he was severely outnumbered
and unprepared to continue the conquest.
He came back in 1521 with increased power and mobility on the water. Had
had 13 small warships built. The city was destroyed during the siege from May-Aug
13 1521. They destroyed the buildings, the codexes of the Aztecs and anything that
was significant to their people and faith. In the end, the Aztecs surrendered. The
Aztecs then fled as the Spanish and the Taxcalan natives who were against the Aztec
rule, continued to attack and murder them even after surrender.
of the state: has to do with the gov’t and those who run it… having a
program and wanting to communicate with its citizens. For example:
Social engineering, messages its trying to promote through its different
institutions, education structure, textbook manufacturing, children’s
books. Represents what the gov’t wants its people to become.
Web (parliament) a parliamentary procedure of
definitio demanding that a government official explain some
ns: act or policy.
Institutions like the family, school, church etc would encourage state-set values in
Transculturation: Local vs Global
E.g. Playboy's "Te adorable Maria"
Hugh Hefner's daughter is CEO. Think about it.. Cuzco
Cuzco was the capital of the Inca Empire
Located in Peru
The Spanish conquistadors adopted the local name, transliterating it into
Spanish as Cuzco from Cusco
The first Spaniards arrived in the city on 15 November 1533. Francisco
Pizarro officially arrived in Cuzco on 23 March 1534, renaming it the
"Very noble and great city of Cuzco".
The Spanish destroyed many Inca buildings, temples and palaces. They
used the remaining walls as bases for the construction of a new city.
Cuzco was the center for the Spanish colonization and spread of
Christianity in the Andean world. It became very prosperous thanks to
agriculture, cattle raising, and mining, as well as its trade with Spain. The
Spanish colonists constructed many churches and convents, as well as
a cathedral, university and Archbishopric. Just as the Inca built on top of
Killke structures, Spanish buildings were based on the massive stone
walls built by the Inca.
was a legal system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown
during the colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American
In the encomienda, the Spanish crown granted a person a specified
number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. In theory,
the receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes
and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith: in
return they could extract tribute from the natives in the form of labor,
gold or other products
Natives we still allowed to own their own lands, the lands previously
owned were not appropriated and protected by the Crown Castile
Bartolomé de las Casaa was a champion of the abolishment of the
encomienda system after witnessing many hardships and abuse that the
Mestizo’s were not subject to the econmienda
The encomienda system did eventually come to a legal end in 1720,
noble man known for his chronicle in which he denounced the ill
treatment of the native peoples of the Andes by
the Spanish after conquest.Today, Guaman Poma is noted for his
illustrated chronicle, Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno.3] He was direct descendent of the eminent indigenous conqueror and ruler
Huaman-Chava-Ayauca Yarovilca-Huanuco(The First New Chronicle and
Written between 1600 and 1615 and addressed to King Philip III of
Spain, the Corónica outlines the injustices of colonial rule and argues that
the Spanish were foreign settlers in Peru." It is our country," he said,
"because God has given it to us." The king never received the document.
Document was written in 3 languages
Guaman Poma proposed a new direction for the governance of Peru: a
"good government" that would draw from Inca social and economic
structures, European technology, and Christian theology, adapted to the
practical needs of Andean peoples
Cuadro de Castas
Artist of paintings depicting the cast system in Mexico at the time
17 -18 century
Cast system seemed to be based on racial and cultural identity
Cuadro de Castas: Came from Spain after the inquisition, organization of
the new colonies/hierarchy of order, important
catalogue/administration, paintings so art and administrative tools,
depicts the people and the backgrounds: how and where. Each one had a
name. Tourists would come, take these paintings to Europe and extend
their role. Tourists' fetishes and souvenirs which lead to a source of
José San Martín
1778-1850, liberal, statesmen
Played a vital role in the liberation of South America from the Spanish
Studied in Spain and became a loyal officer of the Spanish Monarch
One possible explanation for this startling change of allegiance on the
part of a soldier who had sworn fealty to Spain is that it was prompted by
British sympathizers with the independence movement in Spanish
Campaigned across the Andes
o Gained him creditability among the ranks of Hannibal and
Napoleon for being able to move a large army across land in such a
Established the army of the Andes On 12 July 1821, after seizing partial control of Lima, San Martín was
appointed Protector of Peru
Responsible for the independence of Peru
San Martín is regarded as a national hero of Argentina and, together with
Bolívar, one of the liberators of Spanish South America
Considered by many the protector of Peru and liberated native servitude
and created the ‘freedom of the wombs’ which removed slavery for future
generations of slave parents
An Allie of Bolívar
Later exiled to France where he passed due to health complications
Virgin of Guadalupe
Appeared as a vision to Juan Diego in 1531 at the Teyepac Hill in Mexico,
however the account was that of a darker skinned female and not the fair
skinned one seen in most artists renditions.
Transculturation version of the Virgin Mary of European Catholicism
Seen as a national symbol of Mexico
The story of Mary’s appearance to Juan Diego was codified in the work of
Miquel Sánchez in 1648, and an account in the indigenous language
(Nahuatl) was published in 1649 and widely accepted as accurate.
Guadalupe was credited with ending a deadly epidemic that ravaged
Mexico City in 1736–37. In 1737 she was proclaimed patroness of Mexico
City, and in 1746 her patronage was accepted by all the territories of New
Spain, which included part of present-day California as well as Mexico
and regions as far south as Guatemala and El Salvador
Following the Spanish Conquest in 1519–21, a temple of the mother-
goddess Tonantzin at Tepeyac outside Mexico City, was destroyed and a
chapel dedicated to the Virgin built on the site
Christopher Columbus is viewed as one of the principal players of the early history
of Latin America. An Italian explorer who opened up the passages to the East
proving that the Earth was not round. He made four voyages to the Americas
sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. His discovery of the “New World” in
1492 radically changed the course of European and Amerindian societies.
Columbus’s written accounts of early interactions with the Indians reveal that he
saw the natives as poor and uncivilized, he even doubted that the indians had a soul.
He died in 1506 convinced that the lands he had discovered were islands and
peninsulas in Asia.
Simon Bolivar (1783-1830):
The most important leader of South America’s independence movement. A historical
figure whose achievements during the wars of independence against Spain made deserving of the title of “the great Liberator”. He was a criollo born in Venezuela, a
son of the elite who was educated in military schools and who happened to be
related to the royal family in Spain.
Bolivar was a controversial figure, a master strategist and a revolutionary liberal
who inspired much political jealousy during his times. He came to be seen by some
as the father of nations, and by others as an autocrat and a dictator. Nevertheless
Bolivar failed to accomplish his dream of creating a unified nation called “La Gran
Colombia”. Simon Bolivar died as a tragic hero in 1830 in Santa Marta, he was
defeated and disillusioned and shortly before his death he made his famous
observation stating that America was ungovernable. (Bolivar was a “caudillo”)
The Spanish Golden age begins with the Reconquista of Spain, the reign of the
Catholic Monarch (1474), with the imperial election of Charles V (1519) and ends
with the death of poet/playwright Pedro Calderon de la Barca.
It refers to a moment artistically and historically, a period of flourishing in arts and
literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish
A period in which man is refocusing his own image and his place in the world.
People are starting to express themselves in many different ways and are breaking
with paradigms. It is also a “physical” golden age.
Fray Bartolome de las Casas: (1484-1556)
Fray Bartolome de Las Casas, an ex-conquistador who later became a franciscan
monk, was perhaps one of the first Europeans who questioned the treatment of the
indigenous people by the Spanish. His own experiences made him rethink and
understand that the indigenous people were to be treated humanely. Bartolome was
named the “Apóstol of The Americas”, and became known as the defender of the
indigenous people. He was one of the first proponents of civil rights and he
dedicated his life to the defence of Indian rights.
De las Casas was responsible for rescuing Columbus’s diary. He is also the author of
"Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias" (A Brief Account of The
Destruction of The Indies).
Theodore de Bry:
Important illustrator and book publisher; he initiated a series of publications based
on first-hand observations by explorers. De Bry's illustrations are considered the
first “authentic” images of the New World; his depictions of the New World however
were often inadequate and eurocentric in nature as he himself never visited the
The engravings of Theodore de Bry are included in Hans Staden’s 1592 account of
the practice of Cannibalism by the Tupi people of Brazil. Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
He was a writer and the 7 president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874. He believed
that educating the population would eventually lead to the election of natural born
leaders. This kind of thinking was called positivism. During his exile in Chile he
wrote Facundo, which had a huge impact on Argentinian c