NMC101H1 Lecture Notes - Ancient Egyptian Architecture, El Lahun, Wadi Hammamat

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Published on 26 Nov 2012
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NMC343 LECTURE 10 – NOVEMBER 22 nd
- I apologize for the strange grey bars – I use Evernote to keep all my notes and copied these
directly from there. Obviously, the tabbing seems quite strange to my open source word processor,
so it looks a bit wonky – but the information is all there!
Test
- map, multiple choice, short answer, essay question
- essay question choices
- early dynastic period: aspects of kingship
- old kingdom: monumental architecture
- middle kingdom: literary evidence
11th Dynasty con't
- Sankhkara Mentuhotep III
- Son of Mentuhotep II
- referenced as the eldest son of this king
- reign turin canon: 12 years
- mandate: protection of Egypt
- Expeditions
- Punt
- led by Henenu
- numerous building projects, all about establishing religious kingship and control
- built to remind all of the connection between him and the divine
- Elephentine, El Kab, Tod, Armant, Abydos and Thebes
- celebrated a heb-sed at Armant
- tomb was never finished
- Nebtawyra Mentuhotep IV
- son of Imi, secondary wife of Mentuhotep II or Mentuhotep III
- missing on most kings lists
- heir to the throne?
- other claimants (took on aspects of the titulary):
- Qakare Intef
- Sekhentibre
- Menekhkare
- expedition to Wadi Hammamat lead by vizier Amenemhat who may be Mentuhotep
IV's successor
- Government and Administration of the Eleventh Dynasty
- change of ideology
- Old Kingdom = Implicit Statement, role of the king is fact, his word is law
- Middle Kingdom = explicit reasoning, clear and concise reasons why they rule
- they can control and protect it, ensure religious ceremonies are continued
- ruled based on their worthiness
- re-establishing a central government
- Mentuhotep II appointed nomarchs
- vizier: increasing duties
- military action, trade envoys
- Governor of Upper Egypt (from Old Kingdom) and Governor of Lower
Egypt (new)
- foreign relations
- Expeditions to Byblos and Punt
- Religion in the 11th Dynasty
- Montu: deity of Thebes and 11th Dynasty
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- important to the persona piety of the king
- Hathor
- Coffin texts: all people becoming Osiris in their death
- must have access to texts and embalming to be able to do this... not a true
democratization of religion
- Funerary customs and Tombs: existence of social inequality and stratification
- types of 11th dynasty burials
- surface graves, with or without a coffin
- shaft graves, unusually with a coffin deposited in a subsurface chamber
accessible by a rectangular shaft
- tombs with the burial within several coffins and stone sarcophagus in a
stone-mantled subsurface chamber accessible by a corridor
- shwabti figures: magic servant statues that come to life and serve you in the
afterlife
- became increasingly popular
- Conclusions
- reign of last king something of a mystery
- Amenemhat I - vizier who became king
Dynasty Twelve: Kings of the Residence of itchi-tawy
- duration
- turin canon: 8 kings, 213 years, 1 month and 17 days
- documentation autobiographies of local governors
- royals and non-royals stela, especially from Abydos
- letters from Lahun
- literature
- Amenemhat I
- son of Senusret and Nefret the south (non-royal)
- Vizier of Mentuhotep IV
- founded new capital, Ity-Tawy
- conscious break with Thebes, better middle point in the country
- visible presences to both the north and the south
- Amenemhat in Literature
- The Prophecy of Neferti
- Asiatic infiltrators, chaos, and then a new man rises to save Egypt
- returns Egypt to its former glory
- Walls-of-the-Ruler in Eastern Delta
- series of forts that run along the Eastern Delta where the Sinai starts
- help protect and control who comes in and who comes out of Egypt
- Amenemhat in Nubia
- Korosko (year 29)
- established contact and control in Nubia here
- Egyptians are permanently stationed here
- driving south to the Second Cataract
- fortresses at Semna and Quban
- building projects
- Bubastis, El-Khatana, Tanis, Karnak (first temple to Mut, wife of Amun), Abydos
(Osiris - explosion of worship of Osiris ), Dendera (Hathor) and Memphis (Ptah)
- we know for sure he had a heb-sed, depiction found at the site of Lisht
- Amenemhat I in literature:
- he was killed after 30 years
- Instructions of Amenemhat I
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