5 Pages

Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
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Zoe Mc Quinn

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nd NMC343 LECTURE 10 – NOVEMBER 22 - I apologize for the strange grey bars – I use Evernote to keep all my notes and copied these directly from there. Obviously, the tabbing seems quite strange to my open source word processor, so it looks a bit wonky – but the information is all there! Test - map, multiple choice, short answer, essay question - essay question choices - early dynastic period: aspects of kingship - old kingdom: monumental architecture - middle kingdom: literary evidence 11th Dynasty con't - Sankhkara Mentuhotep III - Son of Mentuhotep II - referenced as the eldest son of this king - reign turin canon: 12 years - mandate: protection of Egypt - Expeditions - Punt - led by Henenu - numerous building projects, all about establishing religious kingship and control - built to remind all of the connection between him and the divine - Elephentine, El Kab, Tod,Armant,Abydos and Thebes - celebrated a heb-sed atArmant - tomb was never finished - Nebtawyra Mentuhotep IV - son of Imi, secondary wife of Mentuhotep II or Mentuhotep III - missing on most kings lists - heir to the throne? - other claimants (took on aspects of the titulary): - Qakare Intef - Sekhentibre - Menekhkare - expedition to Wadi Hammamat lead by vizier Amenemhat who may be Mentuhotep IV's successor - Government and Administration of the Eleventh Dynasty - change of ideology - Old Kingdom = Implicit Statement, role of the king is fact, his word is law - Middle Kingdom = explicit reasoning, clear and concise reasons why they rule - they can control and protect it, ensure religious ceremonies are continued - ruled based on their worthiness - re-establishing a central government - Mentuhotep II appointed nomarchs - vizier: increasing duties - military action, trade envoys - Governor of Upper Egypt (from Old Kingdom) and Governor of Lower Egypt (new) - foreign relations - Expeditions to Byblos and Punt - Religion in the 11th Dynasty - Montu: deity of Thebes and 11th Dynasty - important to the persona piety of the king - Hathor - Coffin texts: all people becoming Osiris in their death - must have access to texts and embalming to be able to do this... not a true democratization of religion - Funerary customs and Tombs: existence of social inequality and stratification - types of 11th dynasty burials - surface graves, with or without a coffin - shaft graves, unusually with a coffin deposited in a subsurface chamber accessible by a rectangular shaft - tombs with the burial within several coffins and stone sarcophagus in a stone-mantled subsurface chamber accessible by a corridor - shwabti figures: magic servant statues that come to life and serve you in the afterlife - became increasingly popular - Conclusions - reign of last king something of a mystery - Amenemhat I - vizier who became king Dynasty Twelve: Kings of the Residence of itchi-tawy - duration - turin canon: 8 kings, 213 years, 1 month and 17 days - documentation autobiographies of local governors - royals and non-royals stela, especially fromAbydos - letters from Lahun - literature - Amenemhat I - son of Senusret and Nefret the south (non-royal) - Vizier of Mentuhotep IV - founded new capital, Ity-Tawy - conscious break with Thebes, better middle point in the country - visible presences to both the north and the south - Amenemhat in Literature - The Prophecy of Neferti - Asiatic infiltrators, chaos, and then a new man rises to save Egypt - returns Egypt to its former glory - Walls-of-the-Ruler in Eastern Delta - series of forts that run along the Eastern Delta where the Sinai starts - help protect and control who comes in and who comes out of Egypt - Amenemhat in Nubia - Korosko (year 29) - established contact and control in Nubia here - Egyptians are permanently stationed here - driving south to the Second Cataract - fortresses at Semna and Quban - building projects - Bubastis, El-Khatana, Tanis, Karnak (first temple to Mut, wife ofAmun),Abydos (Osiris - explosion of worship of Osiris ), Dendera (Hathor) and Memphis (Ptah) - we know for sure he had a heb-sed, depiction found at the site of Lisht - Amenemhat I in literature: - he was killed after 30 years - Instructions ofAmenemhat I - attempt of an assassination; slowly stabbed to death while his son was away - Tale of Sinuhe - prince finds out that the father's been killed, abandoned the army - Sinuhe was terrified; to hear of the death of the king is a dangerous thing - Amenemhat built a pyramid at Lisht - Senusret I - son ofAmenemhat I - reign: 45 years - Continued expansion into Nubia - Year 10, Year 18 - major expeditions
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