Lecture 10 - Decline of the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
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Zoe Mc Quinn

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NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 8, 2012 Lecture 10 - End of Old Kingdom and FIP Pepy II • Grandson of Pepy I • How do we know who Pepys’dad is? • The Saqqara stone** • Ascended the throne as a child, with his mother acting as regent • Ankhnesmeryre may have been helped by his brother Djau • Reign: • Turin Canon -90 years • Manetho -94 years • Archaeological proof of year 65 and might be a more accurate count • Longest reigning monarch in the world! Image: Shows mother bigger than him • • Representing Isis? Mother of Horus? Her as a goddess? • Statement of her power? • Many wives, guaranteed by long reign Neith is the royal wife and mother of his son who will inherit throne after him • • Iput II half sister • Udjebten his aunt • Ankhnespepy III his granddaughter (his son’s daughter) Stays in his family to take care of grandad • • Acementing of her status in court • Formal marriage • Saqarra stone on her sarcophagus and because of this we understand the complicated relationships • Ankhnespepy IV mother of Neferkare-Nibi • Expeditions: • Sinai • Hatnub • Wadi Hammamat • Nubia • Punt • Byblos Increase in military forays • • Increasing reliance on Libyan and Nubian mercenaries Tomb of Harkhuf • Nomarch in Elephantine (Aswan) • Tomb in hills of Kubbet el-Hawa • Non-royal biography • Family tradition of exploration under Mourner to the land called Yam (south of modern Khar- toum) • Third Journey: • Diplomacy Yam vs southern Libyans NMC343 -Ancient Egypt I Thursday Nov 8, 2012 Lecture 10 - End of Old Kingdom and FIP • Final trip to nubia under Pepy II • Letter of Pepy II Probably written by hand of king** • • This is important, so important that he puts it on the wall of his tomb so that everyone knows the king has written to him • Promising him that his sons will be rewarded for his loyalty - everything he has earned is hereditary Interesting insight into Pepy II as a child with the power of a king • Decline of the Old Kingdom • Wealth of nomarch solidifying during this period given rights of inheritance • Using wealth still doing kings will but with own personal army His long rule is cited as part of the decline of the golden age of pyramids • • Long rule can lead to fatigue in the administration • Aking who is no longer active (and perhaps senile) didn’t have capacity to rule • Problem is he is the god on earth so we can’t depose him That being said there is alos a total disintegration of central rule during his reign • • Nomarch becoming more powerful and exerting greater influence • We see this through large and expensive tombs in major nomes of Egypt, built by: • Nomarchs • Priestly class • Administrators that work for Numerates • Splitting of role of vizier • Vizier of lowe
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