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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #21 November-26-12 2:04 PM Important Points: Today's Topics:  The Early New Kingdom  Lecture Topic: The Early New Kingdom During the lecture,take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecturetopic.  NE Bronze Age Division ○ Early Bronze Age(late predynastic to 1st IP) ○ Middle Bronze Age(MK - 2nd IP) ○ Late Bronze Age (NK)  Period of Amenhotep III ○ Great Period of Diplomacy  Marriages/exchangeof gifts  So called "Amarna letters" = Archiveof Diplomatic correspondence □ -->years 30 of A.III - 1 of TAA □ Onceword abounds --> "gold" □ Amarna Letter EA 23  From Tushratta, King of Mintanni, to Nibmuaria (=Nb-Maat-Re,Amenhotep III)  Gives idea of how rulers related to one another Lecture Topic: Religion II During the lecture,take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecturetopic. • Polytheism, Henotheism, Cosmotheism:Definition ○ Polytheism = worship of many gods  In chargeof differentaspects of life ○ Henotheism = worship and following of ONE god  But acknowledging that others exist ○ Cosmotheism = (Egyptian solar religion of later NK) --> ONE solar creator is source of, and identical with, all other deities • Syncretism ○ Old theory  Local cults subsumed in one state pantheon ○ Problem: Oncesources --> state pantheon already exists ○ -->Yet: "Syncretism"  Merging of 2 (or more) gods to form a compositewith new functions □ Tendency:state gods "absorb" local dieties □ Hyphenated names, e.g. Hathor-Bastet;Ptah-Sokar, etc.  Attachanother god that just uses the characteristic  Hathor-Sakhmet(angry hathor)  Hathor-Bastet • Important Egyptian Deities ○ Re - Sungod, King of pantheon and world Gods usually distinguished by what they wear on their heads  Later merged with Theban Amun (or in the place of their heads).  Amun-Re,king of gods  Aspects: □ Atum - Creator and Evening sun Differentaspects can become differentgods □ Khepri - Morning Sun  Nut picture from "Cenotaph" of Seti I at Abydos ◊ Sun --> cyclically born and swallowed by sky-goddessNut (eats children, reborn the next night) ◊ During day  Ascendsto sky as beetle, Khepri, travels across in barque as falcon, Re  Sets as ram, Atum Osiris - God of the dead ○ Osiris - God of the dead  Embalmed by Anubis  Father of Horus ○ Horus  Embodied in reigning king  Avengerof his father, who was slain by his uncle Seth ○ Seth - God of chaos, storm, outside world, aggressivesexuality  Also protector of solar barque  Murderer/bad guy in Egyptian myth  Seen in more positive light in NK  Wife is Nephthys ○ Nephthys "Lady of the House"  Not much of role other than sister and mourner of Osiris with Isis ○ Isis - Sister-wifeof Osiris and Mother of Horus  Cunning and wise  Various forms  Principal role: Reviverof Osiris, protector of son Horus ○ Hathor - sky-goddess  Personification of solar eye and disk  Mistress of stars and evening  Also goddess of love □ Favorite of women  Also mistress of minerals and foreign lands  One form is: □ Lioness Tefnut (also Maat) - Daughter of Atum and twin to Shu ○ Shu - God of light and air  Separates his parents in morning: □ Nut - Sky, and □ Geb - Earth* ○ Thoth - Mo
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