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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #22 November-28-12 2:12 PM Homework: Today's Topics:  Religion Cont'd  Important Points: Lecture Topic: Religion Continued During the lecture,take notes here. Inserta sub-page for each lecturetopic.  The "Cosmic"Templeof the NK ○ Luxor temple ○ Every god associated with sun god ○ Back is shorter (primordial tomb)and the god lives here, front is bigger (growingcreation)represents the horizon  Great Temples ○ (1) Luxor  Begun underAmenhotep III  Dedicated to Amun  Temple of RoyalKa  (continued by Tutankhamun,Ay, and Horemheb--> then severalrulers of Dyns. 19 and 20, into Greco-Roman Period) ○ (2) (Main) Temple of Karnak  Single most important and largest temple in all of Egypt (and single mostpowerful after the palace, possibly even exceeds the state)  Amun-Ra Temple  Earliest remnants 12th Dyn. (poss. 11th)  Symbol of Cosmosand State □ Every ruler "adds" to it  Construction into Roman Period  Ever-increasing number of Pylons!: □ Hieroglyph of the horizon □ Creation is furthered more and more  (With Mut and Montu precincts)  --> covers over 123 hectars  Earlier axis - E-W;  Second --> S-N --> to Mut precinct (Hatsh)  City --> also South ○ Between Luxor and Karnak, "Avenueof Sphinxes"  Important cultic axis  Once a year a major festival- Opet Festival- Gods were carried in ships to Luxor temple  To this day still an annual festival following same route □ Follows Muslim saint  Abu el-Haggag  Settled in Luxor, became patronsaint of Luxor ○ Sacred Lake  Every temple usually has one  For purification purposes  For priests to wash themselves  Also for rituals ○ Festival Hall (Akhmenu)of ThutmoseIII ○ Karnak's Great HypostyleHall (center columns AmenhotepIII; Hall Seti I):  104m x 52m x 24m high --> largest ever built  West Bank of Thebes ○ Valley of the Kings (KV)  1st ruler buried:Thutmose I (KV 38)  Shadowed by Qurn -- a natural pyramidstructure ○ In New Kingdom  Only tombs in KV, not funerary temples ○ Mortuary Temples  No longer attached to burial place as in OK and MK □ (exception perhaps: Hatshepsut) □ Protection from looting  Architecture mimics temples of gods  3rd IP --> tomb and temple mergeonce again  Colossi of Memnon --> Temple of Amenhotep III □ "whistles" in morning since earthquakein BC 27 □ Repaired in Roman Period and have been silent since □ Make it into Greek Lore  The Ramesseum (Ramesses II, Dyn. 19) □ Scribal school existed here in the later NK  Medinet Habu (RamesesIII, Dyn. 20) □ Ancientname Djamet,or Djeme □ First --> templeby Hatsh. + Thut. III  --> "annexed"by mortuarytempleRa.III □ Entrance resemblesSyrian fortress tower NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1 □ Entrance resemblesSyrian fortress tower  Interior decoration:King "at leisure" ◊ Private suite □ Becauseof strong fortifications  Later refuge □ Deir el-Medinamoved here in late Dyn. 20 □ God's Wives of Amun buriedin courtyard (Dyn. 25-26) □ In Ptolemaic Period town  "Djeme" □ Also: Miniature"Palace" structure with robing and washrooms, Windowof Appearance  Temple (And "Osireion"(burial place of Osiris) ) of Seti I at Abydos (Dyn. 19) □ Well preserved □ Best evidence of daily cult that would have taken place in all the templesin Egypt □ Daily Cult at Abydos  Abydos Reliefs and Texts ◊ Best source for Daily Cultic Ritual  Other: ◊ Images in great HypostyleHall / Karnak(19th Dyn) ◊ Two papyri from Karnak (Dyn. 22) ◊ Ptolemaic Temple of Horus at Edfu Abydos gives best evidence of Cultic Rituals  Elements of Ritual: ◊ Entering ◊ Undressing ◊ Dressing/anointing/crowning ◊ Invocation to enter the "body" of the god (---> Deity thought to "inhabit" statue) ◊ Offerings ◊ Exit  Offerings redistributed amongpriests after the service ◊ King is helping recreation by performing the cult  Not actually alwaysking, its differentpriests. Scenes show king though. Lecture Topic: Amarna Period During the lecture,take notes here. Inserta sub-page for each lecturetopic.  Amenhotep IV alias Akhenaten ○ Akhenaten = famousand infamous ○ Cameto throne as Amenhotep IV ○ Evaluation of reign:
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