Lecture 13.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

Lecture #13 October-24-12 2:02 PM Homework: Important Points: Lecture Topic: Religion I - FuneraryBeliefs and the Egyptian CosmosCont'd During the lecture, take notes here. Insert a sub-page for each lecture topic.  Aspects of the Person ○ In death --> humans likened to gods (following royal example) --> immortality ○ Interact with living out of tomb  In Cults or Dreams ○ Four different aspects of person, or "soul":  (1) Akh - "effective" part (lumious in hereafter) --> Egyptian "Transfiguration(rituals)" = s-akhu (to make into an akh) □ In NK, respected indivudualsveneratedas Akh iker en Ra ("Effective akh of Ra")  Intercedewith gods on behalf of living □ Akh could appearas "ghost"  (2) Ka - "Life force"; also "Double" --> "inhabits" mummy or statue; unites with body at birth □ Some texts:  Dying= "Uniting with ka"  (3) Ba □ (closest to our "soul"  Separatedfrom body at death □ (literary dialogueof a suicidal man and his Ba) □ Human-headedbird going between this life andnext □ Needed tomb and mummyas resting place  Also represents ability to change --> facilitating rebirth  (4) Shoot/shuwet - "Shadow" □ Can temporarilyseparate from body, but boundto it □ More "physical" than other three components  Mummification ○ Ideology  Preserve body = house for soul  Liken deceasedto Osiris □ Cut pieces by Seth, reassembledby Isis and Nephthys □ "1st mummy"  70 days of mummification □ Corresponds to the absence of Orion-Osiris from sky  Orion is absent and then rises again ○ Procedures  Secret event --> performedby specialists (guardedsecrets)  Only 2 Egyptian accounts of procedures □ From RomanPeriod □ Ritual of EmbalmingApis Bull □ Only rough outline known □ But detailed on:  Movements  Materials used (e.g. mummywrappings of varioussizes, soaked in different fluids)  How to apply them  Which Formulaeto recite  Supervisingpriest = "Master of Secrets" ◊ Anubismask  Mummifiedthe head  Sequence □ Head --> followed by chest, hands, feet, etc.  Process likened to course of sun ◊ finished at sunset □ Recitations accompanyevery step  Chargingamulets with magicalpowers ◊ Most important amulet  Heart Scarab --> on chest – Engraved with BD chapter 30B – Remindingheart to perform well at judgment □ Finally: MummyMask  "Imperishablehead" ○ Development  Egyptian climate --> bodiesdry up  Introduction of tombs and coffins NMC 101 - Land of the Pharaohs Page 1  Introduction of tombs and coffins □ Other meansto preserve body necessary  First attempt --> wrappingin linen  From OK --> removinginner organs □ (--> gleaned from meat preservationtechniques?)  Same with use of salt/natron  OK mummies --> often modeled parts in linen (skeleton with remodeledlinen body) □ Genitals, breasts, ears, eyes, mouth and nose  From MK onwards □ Removal of brain □ At first rare --> top echelons --> royal family  In NK --> typical remove brain and innards □ Techniqueperfected  End of Pharaonicperiod □ Techniques deteriorated  Even Coptic monks embalmed □ Church opposed  Mummificationends c. 7th century CE ○ Procedures  Evidence: □ Moderntechnological investigations □ Account of Greek Historian Herodotus (5th century BCE)  Surprisingly precise: ◊ Embalmersworked outside settlements at Nile/ canal  Water needed ◊ Body on bier ◊ Work began on head  Removal of brain with bronzehook  Cavity filled with resinous liquid – Coniferous resins (from Palestine, as was bitumen [tar-like form of petroleum, considered medicinal substance]), bees' wax, aromatic plant oil  Heated --
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