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November 3 2009 Philosophy Lecture All philosophers are virtuous as long as you have your virtues organized in the right order. Monism: a conflict between two beings, either one is right and one is wrong or BOTH are wrong. Ethical vision and political vision for a monist is the same thing. Pluralism: All beings have a share background on politics which is different than their ethics vision. Here There are multiple answers to the same question. Political shared background shares all the visions of those involved. “Meta-blob” (coexisting states/ international law): Many people with different ideas on the good life living in coexisting states. They all have the same background. Plato  Basic M/E schema 1. Experienced objects are unreal because their apparent positive qualities (A) also necessarily imply negative qualities or absences (not- A) 2. This can only be resolved by recourse to transcendental type-token metaphysics and, hence, the Forms 3. Immediate consequence: the world as experienced is not real; reality lies elsewhere. Thus strong appearance/ reality distinction. 4. The resulting task: get to this (transcendent) Reality. Philosophy is the way! Indeed, it is the only way. Plato  Problems Problem 1: How? Problem 2: How do we know when we get there? Problem 3: How many Forms are there, and why? Problem 4: What is a Form of the Good? Problem 5: How, exactly, does the Form of the Good link all the other Forms? Problem 6: Is this ultimate Reality really knowable? Problem 7: And then what? (Cf. Philosopher’s Dilemma.) Aristotle  Basic M/E Schema 1. Causality is not transcendental but observable (ef. Arguments against the Forms). 2. Causality is fourfold: material/ formal/ efficient/ final. 3. There is a First Cause, or Unmoved Mover, who started the chain of causality (otherwise and infinite regress, or failure of reason). 4. The reality of things can be known through study of causality, especially final cause (telos). 5. That includes human life, in its ethical and political dimensions. 6. Flourishing means being virtuous, pursuing human ends through the cultivation and exercise of excellence. 7. So do that! Philosophy is the way insofar as contemplation (in leisure) is seen to suffuse action (in politics), and vice versa, to make a just society. Aristotle  Problems Problem 1: Is the metaphysical
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