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Lecture 4

Week 4 - The Ideal City Plato.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Peter King

th Plato Republic: Book 4 Week of: October 4 , 2010. The Ideal City Reading: Plato, Republic Books 3-4 • Socrates: Goal of Kallipolis – not to make any one group in city outstandingly happy at expense of others (Thrasymachus claimed) but to make everyone as happy as nature allows (421c) • Accomplished if everyone in it practices his natural craft, producing, guarding, or ruling • Guardians must primarily protect system of education to become reasonable and will see orders clearly (434a-c) • Religious practice laws to be deliberated by “the traditional lawgiver” Delphian Apollo (427b-c) • Kallipolis established (427d) and since completely good (427e) must have all virtues of a city (352d-354a): - Wisdom (guardianship possessed by rulers/complete guardians) - Courage (preservation and not abandoning of the belief inculcated by laws through education about what things are to be feared) - Moderation (harmony between rulers and ruled) - Justice (exchange and meddling)—identified with distinct structural features of Kallipolis (434d) • Justice – for the moneymaking, auxiliary, and guardian classes each to do its own work in the city • Same structural features are identical to virtues in individual soul (434d-435a): appetitive (producers), spirited (guardians), and rational (rulers) (435c-441c) • Central question of republic: whether more profitable to be just or unjust (445a) • Guardians must guard against poverty and wealth (421e) • City moderately governed will be the greatest (not by reputation) (423a) • If offspring of guardians is inferior, must be sent off to join other citizens, and if others have able offspring, must join guardians (423c) • Other citizens to be directed towards naturally suited for; doing one work that is
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