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PHL100Y1 (3)

Introduction to Philosophy PHL 100Y1.doc

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Western University
Peter King

Plato on The RepublicSocrates Vs PlatoWhy PlatoForceMightPersuasionReasonsSeduction Oracle at DelphiTradition to go to oracle at DelphiAt oracle Socrates has visionDiathomas maternal figure tells SocratesoHe is the wisest of the AtheniansSocrates doubts this because he is a mere artisanoperhaps what it means to be wise is to realize you do not know anythingKnow Thy Self SocratesoIronyA distance that has opened up between reality and appearanceDramatic ironyaudience knows characters do notSocrates ironyhe is a jerk claims not to know anything or understand things on purpose never says what he thinksSocratic MethodoPursue of questions through questionsoDialectic argumentArgument generates new conclusionsoElenches1 Definition requestedRepeated Several Times2 Definition Offered3 Definition Fails4 Second Definitiontries to avoid counterexamples good way to deconstruct an argument5 Questions Order of PriorityEuthyphro DialogueoPies Act PietyoIs it pies because god loves it or does god love it because it is pies in itself6 Philosophical Definition Platonic Not General Category will cover instancesSocraticIndependence Standards something independentPlato Republic Book 1PiraeusPolemachrus convinces Socrates to come back to his houseCephalus elderly man is Polemachruss who father offers first definition of justiceoMad mastersVery happy to be free of sexual desires sexual desire is a cool and mad master he is a subject or slave to itoAfterlife Pascals WagerReligious sacrifices start to seem important to him a good bet as he gets closer to death better safe than sorry even if you dont believe it might as well do itoHonestydebt freedom Prereflective definition 331cHow ought I life Cephalus says the way to live and be just is to be honest and pay back your debts so u you have no legacy of falsehood or any debts might even leave your kids with more than you hadCounterexample Socrates offersa person gives you his guns to store he turns crazy and comes back to you to give them back to him and do you give them backoAccording to Definitions says you should give it back to himoMorally it is not the right thing to doNew definition Formal definition J 331e 2oTo give to each what is owedoExcessively abstract definition leaves untouched what is exactly the body of knowledge associated with the definitionoCraft Analogy techne Socratic not PlatonicFor Greeks craft is not a hobby but more like a practice which serves important human ends can be practical mundane complicated difficultTechne is an engagement in serving a human end end governs the craft every craft has an associated body of knowledgeTo possess such knowledge is to have a certain kind of virtue arte which means excellenceHuman life is an overlapping of these crafts with their body of knowledges and ends to be good at them is to possess virtueEstablishes relationship between knowledge and virtueNew definition Aristocratic J 332d3oBenefit your friends and harm your enemieso2 ProblemsEnds Telosmeeting endseven evil people have friends is it just if they treat their evil friends good and their good enemies badhow do you know who your friends are who your enemies areFriends might be enemies enemies might be friends1New Definition K knowledge Aristocratic J 335A3oWhat if I specify who is a friend and who is an enemyoReason it is not acceptable because it still entails doing harmoIt is never just to harm people they might be your enemies but still not justSocratesoGoing to war is not the same as doing harm within the city to an enemyKnowledgeVirtue VirtueKnowledgeSocratesPlatos objection to sophists is that they argue for money they will argue anything for money it is bad philosophy to argue for money is not to argue ethicallyThrasymachus New Definition Political Realist J 338c4oThrasymachus is cynical wants to show Socrates and his friends that they are wrongoPolitical realist can also be revolutionaryoJustice is everywhere and always the advantage of the strongeroUnderneath it all everything that is called justice is advantage of the stronger they get to tell everyone what justice isoFour False Moves339 cErroroCan the stronger ever be in error about what is to their advantage Thrasymachus denies thisoThrasymachus denies what they believe to their advantageoThis says that the advantage is independent of the stronger outside their judgementoIf advantage is independent best interests not entirely in their control whose control are they inoHe should of said what they say is to their advantage is to their advantage340 b dBeliefoAccording to their belief it can be to their advantage341 aCraftoIs ruling a craftoThrasymachus says yes it isoFor something to be a craft it has to have associated excellence linked to knowledge knowledge is an independently good thingoThrasymachus agrees to this but fights back what if the craft I am talking about is Shepard I take care of my sheep just so they can be led to the slaughter343 dadvantageoSocrates asks what do you mean when u say justice is the advantage of the strongeroThrasymachus says look around you everywhere we see the just man to a disadvantage to the unjust man oHe should of said there is no such thing is a just man only just power 350 bknowledgeoSocrates gets Thrasymachus to admit that there is such a thing as knowledge of ruling possession of which is an independent good which is particular interest of a ruleroKnowledge is a good or virtue which has to attend to goodSocrates makes strong bad arguments all over the placeo333 ethe person who is good at stealing is also good at guardingo352 aif we find a quality in a small thing we are likely to find it in a large instanceoHinge argumentIf we want to find justice in an individual we have to find it in a larger versionSoul city analogy 352 a also 369 a oSouke soul made him or her what he or she is animate part when it was disordered then the whole person exhibited symptoms of that disease it is like the psyche or the mind not a divine property
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