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June 6 - E. Gettier.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

E. Gettier – “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” A) S knows that P IFF i) P is true ii) S believes that P iii) S is justified in believing that P. B) S knows that P IFF i) S accepts P ii) S has adequate evidence for P. iii) P is true C) S knows that P IFF i) P is true ii) S is sure that P is true iii) S has the right to be sure that P is true.  A is false in that the conditions stated do not constitute a sufficient condition for the truth of the proposition that S knows that P.  Same argument will show that B and C fail  „has adequate evidence for‟ and „has the right to be sure that‟ is not „justified in believing that‟  „justified‟ (S being justified in believing P) makes it possible for a person to be justified in believing a proposition that is false  For any proposition P, if S is justified in believing P, and P entails Q, and S deduces Q from P and accept Q as a result of this deduction, then S is justified in believing Q: S→P→Q Case 1  Suppose Smith and Jones applied for a certain job  Suppose Smith has strong evidence for the following proposition: D) Jones is the man who will get the job, and Jones has ten coins in his pocket.  Smith‟s evidence for D might be that the president of the company assured him that Jones would in the end be selected and that he counted the coins in Jones‟s pocket ten minutes ago  Proposition D entails: E) The man who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket.  Suppose Smith accepts E on the grounds of D, for which he has strong evidence  In this case, Smith is justified in believing that E is true  Imagine, unknown to Smith, that he, himself will get the job and that he, himself has ten coins in his pocket  E is then true  D is false  In this example, all of the following are true: i) E is true ii) Smith believes that E is true
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