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Persons Minds and Bodies.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL240H1
Professor
Clifton Mark
Semester
Summer

Description
PHL24005152014PhysicalismAccordingtophysicalismallthementalthingsarephysicalthingsWhatdowemeanbyphysicalWeshouldprobablydefertothepracticeofsciencethephysicalthingsarethethingsthatthebesttheoriesofphysicstalkaboutCurrenttheoriesofphysicstalkaboutthingslikequarksandgravitybutnotthingslikeunicornsAcommonproposalifmentalthingsarephysicalthenthementalfactssuperveneonthephysicalfactsDotmatrix1ThepropertyofbeingaWisjustapatterninthedots2ifthematrixhadadifferentletterpropertyyoudhavetohavedifferentdotpropertiesitmeansthatIFthementalfactsweredifferentTHENthephysicalfactswouldhavetobedifferentaswellTheresaslightlymoreformalwayofputtingthisNotwopossibleworldscoulddifferintheirmentalpropertiesbutallhavethesamephysicalpropertiespossibleworldisforourpurposesawaytheworldcouldhavebeenthementalfactssuperveneonthephysicalfactsthatmeansthatnotwopossibleworldscoulddifferintheirmentalpropertiesbuthaveidenticalphysicalpropertiesThephysicaltruthsentailthementaltruthsPhysicalismisactuallyaprettythinthesisitdoesnttellushowtoindividuatementalstatesItjusttellsusthatthementalfactssuperveneonthephysicalfactsakaifyouchangethephysicalfactsitchangesthementalfactsSmartsphysicalismEndorsedwhatscalledidentitytheoryAccordingtoidentitytheorymentalstatesareidenticalwithbrainstatesNoteifidentitytheoryistrueandifbrainstatesarephysicalthingsthenphysicalismistrueSmartsargumenthastwostagesThefirststageaimstoestablishthatweshouldbephysicalistsnd2EstablishthatweshouldbeaspecifickindofphysicalistafterimagessubstancedualismtherearetwokindsoffundamentallydifferentthingsintheworldmentalthingsandphysicalthingsandtheycaninteractwitheachotherSubstancedualistslikeDescartesthoughtthatweareunionsofmentalthingsandbodiesifsubstancedualismisrightthenreportingonanafterimageisreportingonanirreduciblementalstateWittgensteinthinksthatmentalstateslikehavinganafterimagearedispositionstobehaveincertainwaysThisisaviewcalledBehaviourismBFskinnerproposedthatweshouldstudythemindbygatheringbehaviouraldataratherthanjustintrospectingIfbehaviourismistruewearentreportingonathingatallInsteadwereexpressingatemptationtosaythatthereisanimagebeforeusZorSmartdislikesthedualistanswerbecauseofoccamsrazorOckahmsrazorisroughlytheprinciplethatweshouldprefersimplertheoriesAristotleposterioranalyticstransMcKeonp150WemayassumethesuperioritycenterisparibusofthedemonstrationwhichderivefromfewerpostulatesorhypothesesTwokindsofsimplicityEleganceTheoryAismoreelegantthantheoryBifitmakesfewerorsimplerassumptionsthantheoryBParsimonyTheoryAismoreparsimoniousthantheoryBifitpostulatesfewerthingsandorkindsofthingsthantheoryBWhatjustifiestheassumptionthatsimplicityisatheoreticalvirtueiethatweshouldacceptockhamsrazor
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