PHL217H1 Lecture Notes - Parrhesia, Language Game, Continental Philosophy

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Published on 28 Nov 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL217H1
Professor
PHL217-20
History as Philosophy (Especially in Continental Philosophy)
The five elements of parrhesia
Criticism, parrhesia is not simple what is the objective case, but a criticizing or the sake
of another's improvement. Criticism here is to be understood as the opposite of flattery.
Flattery is precisely to make someone content with how you are. It is not simply
changing someone's mind. A big part of the point is that it is changing your mind with
the point of changing your life. The last feature is duty. Duty and freedom together. One
has a choice to speak or not. One has a duty to speak even with knowing of
repercussions. Duty to oneself, duty to the other person. Thought of as a duty to truth
itself, in the case of parrhesia, duty to oneself, duty to the other, and duty to other, are
inseparable. There's no correspondent reality of truth, there's an implied definition here,
parrhesiastic truth is that which another tells us, although it is unpleasant to us, because
it can change an aspect of our life if it is acknowledged. While it seems to be, the
questions always is to get to a definition of science, here the question is what is
courage, and what it asks for what a definition of courage is. In the end of whatever
courage is, socrates is someone who is the best person to teach it. The definition of
truth here is not a definining statement but a practical impact.
The parrhesiastic game
Recalling wittgensteins language game. Language is used in a variety of ways.
Language use is somehow rule governed. There are utterances that are purposeful in
the context, and others that won't be. In science, the the language that is used there
would not function in religious contexts, as vice versa. Not all language games are truth
games. The parrhesiastic game is a linguistic truth game but not in the sense of what
science is, the parrhesiastic game, the rhetorical, the political, and the philosophical.
The parrhesiastic game is part of changing someones life, and there lies dangers
intrinsic in this. Who the players of the games are. Rhetorics: the opposite of parrhesia,
specifically the parrhesiastic tradition started with Socrates, the opponent is a sophist,
and not a participant of the game, the sophist uses adorned and embellished logic for
the sake of argument, it is not part of the parrhesiastic game. But it is precisely because
of this sophistry that the parrhesstiac game develop in conflict. Rhetoric itself is
concerned with ornamental language. But Rhetoric sees itself as indifferent to truth.
Practice of truth versus procedure of truth
With its emphasis on courageous frankness, foucaults account of parrhesia, is similar to
Kant s enlightenment. The first thing to recall to what is enlightenment, Kant provides a
procedural definitin of enlightenment. Parrhesia is the same. Kant also begins with the
self, that he should be cured of his self incurred minority, but that emphasis should be
placed on the public. Although few individual minds would be liberated, it would be
difficult. So Kant recommends the removal of the restrictions of freedom of expression,
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Document Summary

Criticism, parrhesia is not simple what is the objective case, but a criticizing or the sake of another"s improvement. Criticism here is to be understood as the opposite of flattery. Flattery is precisely to make someone content with how you are. A big part of the point is that it is changing your mind with the point of changing your life. One has a choice to speak or not. One has a duty to speak even with knowing of repercussions. Duty to oneself, duty to the other person. Thought of as a duty to truth itself, in the case of parrhesia, duty to oneself, duty to the other, and duty to other, are inseparable. There"s no correspondent reality of truth, there"s an implied definition here, parrhesiastic truth is that which another tells us, although it is unpleasant to us, because it can change an aspect of our life if it is acknowledged.

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