The kalam cosmological argument: the premises of the argument, the universal began to exist. (by the universe is meant everything that has begun to exist. , whatever begins to exist has a cause that brings it into existence. Therefore: the universe was caused either by a preceding event in accordance with a law of nature (a cause as understood in natural science) or by a person acting intentionally, objections to each premise. Leibniz"s cosmological argument: an analysis of the argument a.