Intro Lecture

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Published on 27 Sep 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL243H1
PHL243 – Philosophy of Sex
Introductory Lecture
The 6 Characterizations of Philosophy:
1. Philsophy holds nothing sacred
Authority means nothing
Tradition means nothing
Faith means nothing
2. Rational arguement is crucial to philosophy
3. Philosophy aims at changing your vision of the world by argument
4. Philosophy is like religion in it’s attempt to understand things in general,
including the place of humans in the universe. Philosophy is unlike religion because
it holds nothing sacred and deals in arguements, not text.
5. Philosophy is like science because it proceeds by arguement and is always open
to refutation – approaches questions with skepticism. Philosophy is unlike science
because it has no fixed or definitive methods for solving it’s problems (ie.
Experiments/test).
6. Philosophy is like literature because it explores human life and it’s place in
nature. Philosophy is unlike literature because it proceeds by arguement whereas
stories have a secondary role.
Terms:
Normative’: what ought to be, as opposed to what is.
Value Theory’: concerns what ought to be in a broad sense – determines what is
good, beautiful, and desirable.
The 3 kinds of moral theory:
1. Deontology – you must/mustn’t do this
2. Consequentialism – do what will bring the best results (generally in terms of
happiness)
3. Teleology – do what best fufills your nature
> All 3 theories are about norms (what ought to be); the last 2 derive norms (what
ought to be) from individual values.
Relationship between values and norms:
Values justify norms:
Ie. We care about trust (a value)
So do not cheat (norm)
We care about financial wealth (a value)
So you should have a job (a norm)
Levels of Justification:
Moral values sometimes justify moral norms
Moral norms sometimes justify legal norms
Moral norms lead to laws.
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Document Summary

The 6 characterizations of philosophy: philsophy holds nothing sacred. Philosophy is unlike religion because it holds nothing sacred and deals in arguements, not text: philosophy is like science because it proceeds by arguement and is always open to refutation approaches questions with skepticism. Philosophy is unlike science because it has no fixed or definitive methods for solving it"s problems (ie. experiments/test): philosophy is like literature because it explores human life and it"s place in nature. Philosophy is unlike literature because it proceeds by arguement whereas stories have a secondary role. Normative": what ought to be, as opposed to what is. Value theory": concerns what ought to be in a broad sense determines what is good, beautiful, and desirable. The 3 kinds of moral theory: deontology you must/mustn"t do this, consequentialism do what will bring the best results (generally in terms of happiness, teleology do what best fufills your nature.