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PSL300 Hormone Summary Chart.pdf

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Hae- Young Kee

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Hormone Type Stimulus Released from Target(s) Mechanism of action Functions to Too much? Too little? insulin peptide high plasma pancreas (β cells) most tissues in receptor Tyr kinase: (i) ↑ glucose uptake by cells hypoglycem- hyperglycem- [glucose]; GLP- body (not liver, Ras-MAP kinase, (ii) PI- and ↓ plasma [glucose]; ia ia 1, GIP; high brain) 3 kinase/PKB promotes glycolysis; plasma [AA], formation of glycogen, fat, parasympathetic protein NS melatonin amine sleeping pineal gland brain and others (behaves like peptides or transmit info of light-dark sleepiness over- (W) (darkness) (main); GI tract, steroids) cycles; immune modulation; alertness; leukocytes, other anti-oxidant insomnia brain regions catecholamines amine sympathetic adrenal medulla liver, cardiac & (behaves like peptides) initiate fight-or-flight hyperglycem- digestive (epinephrine + (Y) output (cytosol) skeletal muscles; vesicle storage & release; response; ↑ glycogenolysis, ia; skeletal state; reduced NE) fat; intestine; G protein (both AC and ↓ glycogenesis muscle alertness, etc. skin; kidney; PLC pathways) hyperactivity; brain low digestion parathyroid peptide low plasma parathyroid bone calcium-sensing receptor ↑ plasma [Ca ]+ osteoporosis; poor neural 2+ hormone (PTH) [Ca ] glands (chief (osteoblasts), (G protein-coupled abnormally signal cells) kidney pathway) high plasma transmission [Ca ] 2+ calcitriol steroid high PTH kidney (proximal kidney, intestine intracellular receptor- ↑ plasma [Ca ] abnormally low 2+asma activity tubule) binding high plasma [Ca ]; ↓ [Ca ] intestinal absorption of 2+ Ca calcitonin peptide high plasma thyroid gland bone unspecified (G protein- inhibits bone resorption & abnormally osteoporosis [Ca ]+ (osteoclasts), coupled receptor calcium reabsorption by low plasma 2+ kidneys pathway) kidneys [Ca ] arginine peptide high plasma synthesized in kidney: collecting G protein pathway: ↑ water reabsorption, and polyuria, low b.p. may vasopressin osmolarity hypothalamus; duct insertion of aquaporin-2 ultimately ↑ b.p. polydipsia; cause (AVP)/anti- released from PP water pores into apical hypertension unconscious- diuretic membrane ness hormone (ADH) + + aldosterone steroid hig+ plasma adrenal cortex kidney: distal intracellular g+ne secrete K and reabsorb Na Conn’s; hypotension [K ], tubule & regulation: Na channels polyuria; angiotensin II collecting duct + K channels + Na /K+ + hypertension ATPase renin (not a peptide low blood kidney carries out n/a leave angiotensinogen into over- angiotensin II hormone) pressure (juxtaglomerular enzymatic activity angiotensin I production of deficiency cells) in circulation; angiotensin II (see below) target substrate (see below) angiotensinogen Page 1 of 5 Hormone Type Stimulus Released from Target(s) Mechanism of action Functions to Too much? Too little? angiotensin II peptide n/a in circulation hypothalamus; unspecified ↑ b.p. by stimulating release extreme hypotension (angiotensinogen blood vessels; of aldosterone, eliciting thirst; hyper- constitutively adrenal cortex behaviour of drinking, etc. tension released from liver) glucagon peptide low plasma pancreas (α cells) liver G protein-coupled; ↑ plasma [glucose]; promote hyperglycem- hypoglycem- [glucose] glycogenolysis, lipolysis, ia ia gluconeogenesis atrial natriuretic peptide atrial stretch (↑ cardiac atria hypothalamus, unspecified ↓ b.p. by inhibit AVP & hypotension hypertension hormone blood vol.) kidney, adrenal aldosterone secretion (ANH) cortex, medulla (angiotensin II antagonist), dilation of afferent arteriole in nephron, etc. gastric peptide glucose/FA in small intestine pancreatic β cells unspecified ↑ insulin release, ↓ gastric over- slow insulin inhibitory intestine emptying/acid stimulation of response to peptide (GIP) insulin glucose release glucagon-like peptide glucose in small intestine pancreatic β cells unspecified ↑ insulin, ↓ glucagon, ↑ β over- slow insulin peptide-1 intestine cell growth, ↓ gastric stimulation of response to (GLP-1) emptying/acid, feeling of insulin glucose satiety release dehydroepiand- steroid ACTH adrenal cortex; n/a a weak androgen women: pubic/axillary hair, n/a n/a rosterone (cortical), LH gonads source of estrogen after (DHEA) (gonadal) action menopause; onset of puberty in children androstenedi- steroid ACTH adrenal cortex; n/a a weak androgen precursor of testosterone, n/a n/a one (cortical), LH gonads (thecal estradiol (gonadal) action cells) adrenocorticotr peptide CRH action anterior pituitary adrenal cortex unspecified stimulates adrenal cortex & excess deficiency of opic hormone initiates production of cortical (ACTH) steroidogenesis/cortisol cortical steroids synthesis steroids corticotropin- peptide stress; circadian hypothalamus; anterior pituitary unspecified stimulate ACTH release excess ACTH hypoglycem- releasing rhythm placenta from ant. pit. ia; hepatitis hormone (CRH) (hypothalamic); gestation & parturition (placental) cortisol steroid ACTH action adrenal cortex liver, fat, muscle, unspecified protect against Cushing’s; ↓ hypoglycem- bone, hypoglycemia; permissive CRH, ACTH ia lymphocytes effect on epinephrine & release glucagon Page 2 of 5 Hormone Type Stimulus Released from Target(s) Mechanism of action Functions to Too much? Too little? growth peptide GHRH action anterior pituitary virtually all receptor-enzyme-kinase ↑ protein synth., fat & carb acromegaly; underdevelop hormone (GH) tissues pathway
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