POL215Y1 Lecture Notes - Loaded Language, Authoritarianism, Consequentialism
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•Singapore is an example of a prosperous state deeply engaged in
•Understanding of democracy is consequentialist. Looking at policy output.
The Regime is responsive to citizens but not participatory.
•Raises questions about stability and persistence of authoritarianism.
•Current writing on the subject of authoritarianism:
oSoviet specialist (paradoxes of the new authoritarianism)
(Lipset)Why are authoritarian regimes surviving In the age of
democratization? Why has political science underestimate the
oAnswer to first question: Liberalized authoritarian is not a stable
equilibrium. Performance is the only way that authoritarian regimes
succeed. They must deliver.
Argument #1 that would destabilize authoritarianism
•Modernization theory argues that as income rise, middle class emerges,
Values Change. Democratic friendly ways rise. As a result. the authoritarian
•Adjusting policies that are responsive is what authoritarian regimes should
•Regimes like Singapore that has adopted democratic reforms still has a
perpetual hold on power (by rigging the field in elections)
21st century methods of enduring the democratic threat are vital in understanding
the survival of authoritarian regimes.
•NathanNew way of looking at the Chinese Regime is the mixture between
stateism and etc…look at readings
•Authoritarian regimes live under the shadow democratic institutions.
•Suggests that China exemplifies a new distinctive sub-variant, stable,
oCoercive powers of the state
oRepressive powers of the state
•It may be more fruitful to ask if China would change to be more effective and
more universal for democracy
•The China case contradicts the belief that democracy is the only method in
having effective polic responsive reaction to citizens’ demand.
•We are all modernization theorists.
•A question of when and how China would democratize
Do you think it would be better to ask if China transition to democracy, or is it better
for the Chinese to adapt to the demands of citizens? (different form of democracy)
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