Lecture #8-china: singapore is an example of a prosperous state deeply engaged in international trade, understanding of democracy is consequentialist. Why has political science underestimate the authoritarian regime: answer to first question: liberalized authoritarian is not a stable equilibrium. Performance is the only way that authoritarian regimes succeed. Argument #1 that would destabilize authoritarianism: modernization theory argues that as income rise, middle class emerges, Positive and negative images of china: self confident china (italian suits, starbucks etc ) lifting everyone out of poverty, emergence of a powerful actor in modern state. Brutal image of china brutalizing citizens, take political prisoners, not self tolerant: scholars are juxtaposing these two ideas, studying china as opposed to concurrent trends, renovation, reinvention, disintegration chinese communist party adaptation. Twin processes: on one hand, dysfunctions of china and at the same time, adapting in effective ways: you wind up with a clich d characterization of china as beset by, e. g.