POL326Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: War Powers Resolution, Theodore Roosevelt, Roosevelt Corollary

71 views6 pages
14 Dec 2016
House Whip: tries to count votes and understand how reps vote; keeps track of favours and uses that
information to advance his/her own agenda; Johnson treatment: using favours to rally support or
- President Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, however, the funding controlled by
Congress; can receive ambassadors but with consent of Senate;
- Textbook argument: separation of powers somewhat of misnomer; to better way to understand
it, it is a system of institution sharing power; it is clear that framers wanted the powers of
executive checked by Congress; what is the extent of that restraint in engaging in foreign policy
without the consent of Congress;
- Obv aspect: War powers; intent of framers, president not seen authorized to engage in warfare
without the cooperation of Congress; how much of a check is that in reality?
- One partial answer: historical answer; a good indication that it is not, was offered by Teddy
Roosevelt; became president because of American-Spanish War; speak softly but carry a big
stick; however, given that commitment, he was keen to demonstrate American might in
international affairs; his war-hero status, an indicator of rise of America in defeating a Western
Europe, namely Spain; as such, he believed that America should be at par With BG and France;
how did GB and France did it, they projected through colonization; America demonstrated its
power through colonization of Pacific region; Roosevelt suggested, America send American navy
around the world; but he needed funding; went to Congress, and Congress rejected that;
Roosevelt asked navy how far the navy could do it without funding from Congress; their funding
enough to send to Philippines; once in Philippines, Congress to fund it to be brought back;
Congress did as such, but with implications;
- Different in actual conflict; Congress to deny funding to the president a major problem to
America and its reputation overseas; i paper looks good to urtail presidet’s poer, ut i
realit does’t ork that a;
- Textbook: Congress declared war in its history on 5 occasion but America has fought over 200
times; that undermines the idea that FP subject to checks and balances;
o Vast majority of those deployments relatively small in nature;
o US MARINE CORP: created primarily to protect American embassies in foreign
o Other branches: Officer Corp; relied on rapid mobilization of troops prior and
demobilization after;
o Marines as permanent, created possiblility to involved them in minor engagements;
o Gun-boat diplomacy: Latin America and Carribbean; for collecting debt repayments;
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
- Justified in Roosevelt Corollary of Monroe Doctrine;
- Corollary: repsonsiblity of US as regional hegemon that the behaviour of states in Western
Hemisphere to invite foreign intervention;
- Britain as international creditor: Venezuela incurred large debt and ended up with conflict with
Britain; US intervened on the pretext that if US did not, Britain would, and that would violate
Monroe Doctrine;
- Essentially these kinds of small scale military interventions in Western Hemisphere did not get
Congressional authorization;
- Problem became severe in 20th century; the very idea of Congress authorization of military
action fairly easy to justify in the period of writing the documents in 18th century; any threat at
that time came from Europe; as such, they had time to respond;
- That changes in 20th century, as threats emerge much more daunting and needed immediate
- Cogressional elites in agreement with this problem;
- Up until WWII based on minute-man-forces;
- WWII problematic; end of it did not result in demobilization of US forces; by 1947 evident that
WWII replaced by Cold War; in that context, US could not demobilize; would have to maintain
permanent military; 1947, National Security Act of 1947 creating Defense Department; that
meant, the check on the use of military by president further undermined;
- All of this came to a head in the context of Vietnam War; Congress did not declare war but
passed an authorization to engage in military response; Tonkin Resolution;
- US claimed that on two occasions Vietnam had attacked US ships on the Bay of Tonkin;
- Authorized president Johnson to take measures to response; not a declaration of war;
- It lead to Vietnam War; consequently, Congress in the 1970s decided to try to modernize checks
and blances by passing the War Powers Resolution; passed by both Houses in 1974; vetoed by
President Ford; but was then repassed with a 2/3 majority;
- It clarifies the relationship between executive and legislative; arrangement in Constitution no
longer viable; President had to respond immediately; however, that had to be balanced by some
kind of a check; president authorized but had to inform Congress within 24 hours and has to get
approal of Cogress ithi 60 das; if he does’t get that, has additioal 0 days to withdraw
those forces;
- Did that settle the matter? NO;
- / ajorit approal of this idiates it ould’t work; violates Constitution as well; but never
has come to courts; never has been tested; notable exception: Libya;
- Has also spurred a debate whether this resolution has weakened or strengthened the president;
- Prior to it, implied nature rested with Congress; as such it has strengthened the president;
- Tedd Rooseelt’s eaple deostrates that it has eakeed;
- However, Congress would not undermine its president and tarnish American reputation;
- Gadhafi overthrow example: UN resolution authroized operations to protection; but not regime
change; BUT regime change occurred and lead to the current chaos;
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.