Monday Sept. 10,2012
Lecture One: Introduction
Big Themes of Class:
• Democracy, Dictatorship, War and Peace (how humans govern themselves and how
they deal with events)
• The point of social science is to try to make sense of the world we live in.
• How do we make sense of it? -> simplifying by focusing on what matters and ignoring
what doesn’t. That way the world is less scary. What is important and what is not.
• Democracy and War
• Is the world becoming more democratic and more peaceful
• Francis Fukuyama (something was happening ie. the tearing down of the Berlin
• Summer 1989
• Hegel ->philosopher (when see the unfolding of history and the history of human
• History of Human Consciousness
• We learn the history of people, wars
• History of philosophy
• Clash of ideas what does not move on. The reality that is left after the people is the
• Not kings, queens, presidents, prime ministers or celebrities: they steal ideas, big
• When you see a war, what you really see out there is the clash of ideas.
• Industry, economy, religious practice are material manifestation but is what is really
going on the ideas that inform those practices.
• Ideas and the Organization of Human Society
• Really big ideas that are organized by human society
• Ancient society
• Medieval society
• Liberal Democratic state
• History moves on
• Hegel and Liberal State • Hegel and the Battle of Jena: “Victory of liberty, equality and fraternity”
• Argues that this is the “end of history”
• No new ideas forthcoming the can challenge the BIG IDEA.
• Do I need to know all of this, NO.
• What’s essential? -> the big ideas, for each age you study the big events
• Hegel was right but he was a bit off.
• Nazi and Communism would still pose a challenge to Liberal Democracy. There
had to be a war to get rid of it.
• The big challenges have been defeated in the realm of ideas (fascism and commu-
nism) - THE REAL REALM
•Yes, communism still there but outside of Cuba, North Korea nobody willing to
die for it or betray their country for it. A POWERLESS IDEA.
•Christian, Jewish, Islamic fundamentalism: yes they are there but they are not
universal and therefore not a real challenge.
• Where does that leave us?
• World of peace, trade, democracy
• Yes, we still have wars but they are not wars of big ideas or if they are liberalism
• examples of Russia
• We should look for big ideological challengers
• But in this sense, history is over.
-The world has changed
• Clash of Civilizations (An examination of Huntington’s arguments)
• End of the cold war, what is going to happen once the Berlin Wall comes down.
What is the world order going to be like.
• A Pessimistic Rejoinder
• From 1973 the liberal democracies grew to 114 but at the same time some coun-
tries never stayed with liberal democracies. • Huntington sees the world not through rose coloured glasses but 9/11
• Alternative World Order?
• Fukuyama - a narrow reading of world history. It is a really long time and calming it
has end is a short view. He is not just telling a story of the past and the future. End
of history in the west. The end of western conflict. Huntington believes that much
but he does not believe the end of the ideas. He thinks Fukuyama over states his
• Liberal peace and prosperity are illusory:
• contested citizenship
• Universal liberal civilization where everyone is one with the world. Do we live in that.
• What still matters most is our national interest. ie. Canada first.
• Can’t go by Fukuyama’s view, Huntington looks to the past and a really deep one.
Asks not what are the rival ideas but a fair more question “we should ask ourselves, who
are we.” Because there are billions of people out there asking that question. There are
people in the world asking that question who will be unhappy with the answer.
• Civilizational Fault Lines
• Re-drawing of the world map
• Not a world of country or contents but a world of civilizations
• Who Are We?
• The essence of a society.
• Defining it and its people.
• Why Clash?
• We should expect conflict because of these differences and how would we behave.
• As long as civilizational lines exist as they do we should expect clash
• Difference = conflict
• Interests = conflict
• Kinship = conflict
• The West and the Rest • Fukuyama sees the West has won over the Rest. Falling of the Berlin Wall is the
ending of big Ideas
• Huntington sees world order as the West ruling over the Rest and the Rest as be-
ing the rival of the West.
• Huntington fears the rise of Islamic civilization. The end of history thesis of Fukuya-
ma is just presumed. Fighting Islam is just a war of nation states but a war of civi-
lization and a war of a civilization without a nation state. He is also worried about
the rise of China. The realities of authoritarian system. The rise of China is really
testing the west and rising in its own rules. It is a rival model of merderaty.
• We are in a Transitional Moment because out of the top five world’s largest
economies 4 are no western.
Mon. Sept. 17, 2012
Lecture Two: Modern Democracy (wong)
-In once there are a lot of virtues of democracy, imperfect -Apartheid in South Africa: the gov’t passed laws that segregated the whites and blacks.
It also was about political, racial, economic segregation. This existed until 1994. After
this they were able to live under a more free society
-Democracy is very attractable but it is still very new. People have fought for it and are
still fighting for it. We can not take it for granted.
- Democracy is very appealing. Huntington argued that we see a third wave in the 1970s
of democracy. In 1975 democracy countries was 29 % and in 2010 it is 59%.
- We see in the post war period we see economic growth, we see authoritarian leading
to wars and conflict. As the world modernizes democracy is more appealing and coun-
tries turn towards it.
I. Democracy Virtue
- Because of its virtues democracy is appealing
- We can organize ourselves as a sovereign (Aristotle)
- One virtue democracy rejects traditional forms of gov’t order ie. kings, etc
- Democracy is a form of political order that we all have a say ie. right to vote, participate
• Liberty= the under fundamental of democracy is liberty, freedom ie. freedom of
speech, rights etc. We can disagree among each other and the holder of power. It is
mediated through institutions
• Equality = In the political sphere we are all in the political sphere equals no matter
race, gender, etc. Everyone no matter what has the same equal vote. Modern liberalism
is about the individual. We participate as equal individuals, protected by the rule of law.
• Rule of law= The means that we do politics, play politics etc it is all laid out in rules.
Democracy goes by the rule of law not the rule of man.
• Pluralism = As individuals enjoying the rights and freedoms of democracy we live in a
pluralist society with multiple ideas, views. Democracy is about making a compromise.
• Institutionalized uncertainty = Elections, we elected those who are in gov’t. We can
vote gov’t in and out. There are winners and losers.Even if you are voted out you are not
thrown in jail or anything you can come back and run again. The belief I lose today I can
win tomorrow. II. Democracy Fragility
• Breakdown and return to democracy = number of such breakdowns 26, % of all
democracies 1974 - 2010 is 16%. Breakdown and No return to democracy is 27 and per-
cent is 16%. Even though it is appealing and great virtues and fought for it can be taken
away. ie. Thailand had a democracy in the 90s and in 2006 a ban on political parties no
III. Democracy as a Process
• There are breakdowns to democracy and its still a new concept and is always chang-
ing and is a process. It is new in Canada, with vote rights for women (1918), other racial
minorities in the 1960s.
• No matter how you want to image and date it, it is a long term process. In which many
have fought for the right to vote and experienced extremely fragile. It just does not ap-
pear, process = foundation, choice of democracy and the choices that make out democ-
A. Building Democracy’s Foundation
• Modernization Theory = how society modernizes. First you have economic then social
and the political (dem.).
•Economic transformation = traditional economy (farming) over time your economy
transforms and you trade and you start building roads and integrating technology
into your economy. Then there is a growth and a bloom in Industrial revolution.
•Economic development = You just farm enough for you to eat. You become wage
earners and work for someone. This leads to growing your economy. You see the
rise of the middle class.
•Demographic change = we see urbanization, people moving form the country side
to the city. The size of family decrease (do not need as much children to work the
farm, instead have them go to the city to work). We see women becoming wage
earners. We see change of the family from traditional to modern ie. women working •Social change = health care, modern education, the secular of church. You be-
come a modern citizen. Literate for political rights.
•Demand for political rights= You demand for rule of law. When you are able to un-
derstand everything and know about it you want it. Democracy is the finale stage of
•We should expect more democracy when countries modernize more and then they
will become democracies once they are that middle zone.
•It is not just economic modernization but also social. You join groups when you are
more social society. In a traditional society your focus is on yourself and working
your farm. In these groups they talked, debated about issues basically they under-
stand what it meant to be a collective fate. Forming associations, interest groups.
•Social capital is about political culture. Democracy’s foundation rests on certain po-
litical culture not just economic and social.
•Democratic Culture = a relatively narrow base, both in time and space. You need to
prove that people outside of this North West Euro world have this culture and
democracy. Culture based on descend, secular culture, it is drawn on from Western
experiences. It is hard to find this democratic culture outside the West.
•Cultural Obstacles = Asian values, in a set of Democratic values is an off set and
go against democracy. It is not enough to be economic and socially modern you
also have to be cultural (Sam Huntington). Huntington also says Islam and
Catholic are hostel to democracy.
•Modernization theory in the West = economic, social, cultural, political all go hand
B. Choosing Democracy
• It is a process and it just does not appear over night. Laying down the foundation. As
you modernize you just become democratic. In the end no matter what democracy has
to be chosen. Somewhere along the way people have to chose democracy. • SouthKorea - Roh Tae Woo (1987) = He choses democracy, when everyone
thought it would be an authoritarian regime. He chose elections.
• Chile - Pinochet (1988) = Brutally dictator, and under his regime we see economic
reform and it grows. In 1980 says “I am going to stay President and we are going to
have a referendum in 1988 if you want me to stay President.” In 1988 they said no
• South Africa - FW de Klerk (1989) = Takes over the apartheid party and begins to
reform the constitution.
• Soviet Union - Gorbachev (late 1980s)= He wanted to elect corruption. And chose
to reform and end the Soviet Union.
• Choosing Democracy When?
• Bottom - up pressure, demands - riots, conflict, society does not want to be au-
thoritarian rule anymore
• International pressure- US pressure, Canadian, ie in South Africa
• Legitimacy crisis - They are not viewed highly anymore be there people.
C. Making Democracy Work
• Institutions- “rules of the game”
-We use strategy ie. elections
• RIghts and limits - rules that say what you can and can not do.
• Winners and Losers - these rules are not neutral, there are consequences.
• Presidentialism and Parliamentarianism
• Presidentialism = Members of congress are not part of the presidenercey. Pres-
ident is not part of congress, they are elected differently. The people are divid-
ed. Executive versus legislative branch. Horwoitzs says this is more modern
and works better if you have the rules of the game down.
• Parliamentarianism= In Canada we vote for members of the party and then
there party leader wins. Cabinet ministers are chosen by the PM. Lead to ma-
jority rule and we have a powerful PM. Linz says they are good for young
democracies and ethic differences. They encourage coalition and the sharing of
power. Executive reflects legislative branch.
• Electoral Institutions In Canada we have first past the pole. The person in your riding just has to win the seat
with the most votes. Mismatch in the number of % popular votes and the number of
seats. You do not vote for the candidate you vote for the party.
• Making Democracy Work
• The “rules of the game”- these rules have consequences
• Reflect goals
• Vary among democracies
Mon. Sept. 24, 2012
Lecture Three: Constant and Liberalism (kopstein) I. Benjamin Constant (1767 - 1830)
• Swiss born, French intellectual and politician
• Fervent Liberal
• Context: French Revolution and aftermath
• Question: how should free people govern themselves
• Conservative today but during his time he was thought to be a liberal
• Liberalism = freedom
• Once you got rid of monarchy (inheritable rule), what would self rule and freedom con-
• What is freedom characterized is the question to think about during the aftermath of
the French revolution and in general. The bases of classical liberalism is the freedom
from tyranny. example the congress in the US has to agree on a bill passed by the Pres-
ident to ensure he is not a tyrant or becomes one
II. Model Rejected
• Liberty of ancients: the act of governing and being governing. (being part of the gov-
ernment). Collective sense.
• Participatory ie. Ancient Greece they would get together and govern together and ev-
eryone who paid taxes and were citizens would get a chance to govern.
• Public (freedom of the community) not Private (whatever he or she wants to do as long
as it does not affect the rights of others) liberty
• Freedom of the community - self government. You rule yourselves and in turn yourself
is ruled. There is no ruling from outsiders. You are not ruled by necessarily an hereditary
• Freedom is collective
• Dependent upon a class of people who did not engage in commerce or even work. ie.
Greeks contrasted commerce with the household.
• Big decisions were decisions on war.
III. Liberty if Moderns
• Not so much “freedom to” as “freedom from” (Isaiah Berlin)
• The fundamental sense of freedom is freedom from tyranny
• Legal protections
• Limited government
• Freedom is individual rather than communal • All driven by “commerce” and private property instead of war
• Society should be based on commerce - Constant
• Even the idea of a constitution
• Constant looked at traditional notions of freedom that can go with the notion of free-
dom of society.
IV. Contradictions of Constant
• Modern liberty is better both than ancient liberty and pre-modern “despotism” (French
• Moderns care more about “freedom from”
• We prefer “representative” to “direct government “that just leaves us alone to be happy
and get rich
• But he hedges his at the end of the lecture
• Believes what we talked about before is not enough
• Liberty of ancients creeps back in through modern notions, they contradict themselves
because they are dealing with hard issues.
V. Ancient liberty and Plato
• There is no sense of the whole
• Plato in his last dialogue the “Laws” offers a grim prophesy to which Constant and per-
haps all moderns - seem liable.
• Plato says “Satisfying lower-order desires (what today we may call modern con-
sumerism) temperance, only to give rise to a conflicted soul, seeking what is noble that
once existed but now seems blatantly lost..”
VI. Traditional Society
• Thucydides, “talks about the Peloponnesian War and there was a campaign when they
go concur Sicily and they lose and he says when they lost the soldiers cried for three
days.” What does it mean they cried for three days, you can’t do that. Lets assume they
did cry and that was the sensibility of the time. It was a different world, it was a world of
scarcity. Most of the world were farmers.
• Non - market societies, there was no currencies or there was multiple currencies com-
peting. You would trade things
• Family life, they were not just the immediate family but extended and collective. All
family members would be punished (vendetta). • Affective orientation (Athenian’s response to loss in Sicily - they cried for three days)
• Ascriptive roles (versus achievement)
VII. Political Authority and the State
• What is a state? Definition = monopoly of a use of a given force
• But in traditional society, no distinction between public and private authority.
• Authority relations based on personal dependence and love and affection
• No clear lines of territorial authority
• Public Administration,
• Creation of Modern State, ex. Louis XIV (palace of Versailles, to stop from the nobles
• Taxation and system of personal retainers of “King” who competed with local lords for
power. This becomes modern bureaucracy.
• Out of this comes the idea of “sovereignty”
VIII. Liberalism: Four Genetic Features
• Individualism: not family or clan
• Proceduralism: rule of law, limited - constitutional, bureaucracy
• Markets: economic and political. It dominates not just that we have them. You can
choice your leaders.
• Toleration: religious, ethnic, gender - relies on hypocrisy
• To the extent these are not present, you’re not dealing with a liberal order
IX. Liberalism: Developmental Stages
• Transformation: (revolutionary or evolutionary beak from monarchy)
• Consolidation: exclude those social elements that threaten the new order
• Inclusion: include those elements, that if not included will rebel against the order
• Never perfected, always evolving always new groups demanding inclusion.
• Liberalism is never perfect, Mon. Oct. 1, 2012
Lecture Four: The Rise of the West and Marxism (modernity) (kopstein)
-Social economic changes were all a puzzle piece. The response that Constant embod-
ied, seeing a society based on commerce thats followed by laws and regulations. This
big turning point kicks off the social sciences. What happened and what was happening.
I. Europe -Looking at a contemporary map of Euro
-The innovations that started in Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries that slowly spread
to the rest of Euro.
II. Origins of Modern World Economy
-Twin revolution (16th - 19th centuries), agricultural and industrial
-Agricultural revolution: may be hyperbole to use the “world revolution” here. Ex. The
less seeds of grain you have to keep for the next year means the more surplus you
III. Industrial Revolution
-Originates in the 18th century
-More approx.. designated as a revolution
Ex. raw cotton processed in British factories
1760: 2.5 million pounds
1787: 2.2 million
-Amount of Iron processed into steel in English factories:
1788: 68, 000 tons
-Proceeded huge changes in domestic consumption
-Luxuries come to be seen and mere decencies and decencies came be seen as neces-
-Distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class that risen from manual
labour to professional or entrepreneurial states.
IV. Social Results
1. Capacity to produce surplus
2. Increasing complexity of division of labour (more specialized) ex. medicine man be-
fore (health and spiritual) now they are separated doctor and spiritual leader. We de-
pend on others to survive.
3. New forms of social consciousness
How are we to understand this?
V. Political Consequences
-Demise of royal absolutism. The status of the royal changes to refinement or gets their
heads cut off.
-Victory of parliament over Kings. -Selection of leaders by election
-Rise of political parties (those who view the old traditional ways and those who viewed
the new modern ways)
-Universal rights without reference to class
-As society becomes wealthier more people want to get involved and rule
-Need to accommodated new groups within politics
VI. Karl Marx
-How to analyze a society?
-The manifesto is written for people who had just learned to read
-What does one look for first?
-Queens and Kings?
-Dominant Ideas? - philosophy
-What kind of food they eat, alcohol they drink etc.
VII. Marx and Materialism
-Feuerbach and critique of German idealism (Hegel)
“The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in versions; ways the point is
to change it.” - Marx, Theses on Feuerbach
-History starts with the critique of the dominate ideas. - Feuerbach
-Materialism: What is God? - radical idea man created man and man created God.
-But for Marx: this does not go far enough.
-Why do we need religion? Injustice. You mist go to the material causes.
VIII. Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism
-Hegel: Consciousness creates society
-Marx disagrees: consciousness does not create being, ‘being creates consciousness.”
-Materialist conception of history
-Not material possessions but the doctrine that nothing exists except matter and its
movements and modifications. The doctrine that consciousness and will are wholly due
to material agency.
IX. Materialist Conception of History
-Humans make their own means of survival
-Works is natural, humans are creative -History is history of class struggles and forms of domination: history is struggle, but ma-
-Culture, ideas, art, law, morality, religion. . . all determined by mode of production: “su-
-Thing about morality,
X. Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism
- Slave, feudal, capitalist, socialist/communist = Modes of production
- “Revolutions are the locomotives of history.” - Marx Capital
- Material life determines everything in life
- History moves from one stage to the next like Hegel it has a meaning, movement and
XI. How does History unfold
-Exploitation ex. noble takes half of peasants crops
-New classes grab power for their particular interested but claim it is in the universal in-
-They create an ideology and excerise state power. The State is nothing more than exec-
utive committee of ruling class
-The class struggles end when the class ends.
-When does this come about?
-Marx’s analysis of social orders: feudalism to capitalism and then his analysis of capi-
-Immiseration and class consciousness
-They would be a class in themselves and for themselves.
XII. Story of Capitalism
-Feudal society: two classes nobles and peasantry
-Rise of new class (bourgeois/ capitalist) and industrial/ urban proletariat
-Bourgeois seizes power in thee name of all but exploits proletariat / working class
-Creates unprecedented wealth
-But it warps human relations and culture
-Capitalist exploitation is at once the most subtle and the most extreme -But workers (the proletariat) will redeem history: no exploitation and truth rather than
-Marx does not hate capitalism
XIV. Marx: History and Politics
-Liberal democracy: is presented to us as in the interest of all but actually in the interest
or ruling class. Formal freedoms versus substantive reality (how can you excerise free-
doms if you are poor)
-It is really about capitalism: Marx is a student of capitalism
-For rights are an illusion, ideology is a mask for power. You can’t see out of it because
you are in it.
-What does Marx mean by communism? It is utopian and unrealistic?
XV. Contradictions of Capitalism
-Production is a public activity but is held in private hands
-What is a revolution? Political versus social revolution
-What will the revolution happen? Free will versus determinism
-Problem of false consciousness (what if the workers do not want a revolution)
-The parties of Chinese and Soviet communism is not what Marx was talking about.
-Stabilizing mechanisms of capitalism (welfare state?)
-What is the role of the entrepreneur or capitalist?
-Does not talk much about them
-Is the state really just a projection of economic power?
-Does the state have an power of economic power yes at times it does and at
times it is private wealth
-Limits to growth?
-Yet, class analysis is powerful stuff, as is the notion of the “force” inherent in the capital-
ist order. Oct. 15, 2012
Lecture Five (Kopstein)
COMMUNISM AND FASCISM
·Salvationist ideologies as opposed to incrementalist
·A “once and for all” attempt to perfect humanity
·The human toll that both of these ideologies and their social institu-
tions exacted constituted the basis upon which our modern notions
of human rights depend
·No holocaust no modern conception of human rights
LIBERALISM AND ITS CRISIS
·Long 19 century is peak of liberalism’s appeal (end of the Napoleonic
wars until WWI)
·Liberal institutions develop even where the social basis is not obvi-
·Countries mirror England’s parliamentary systems (elections with gi-
ant amounts of illiteracy, corruption, government by one party with
minor changes in undeveloped nations) in an attempt to fake liberal
oThese democracies go in to some kind of crisis (falsified election
results, corrupt constituencies)
·People started questioning whether liberalism was working the way it
actually was supposed to work because of these poor countries
LIBERALISM AND THE WORKING CLASS
·Extension of the franchise (to the working class, to women, to other-
wise marginalized and discriminated-against ethnic minorities)
·Rise of Social Democracy in Western Europe. Evolutionary socialism
and reconciliation with liberal democracy: electoral socialism (Edgar
Bernstein evolutionary Marxism)
WHAT ABOUT THE REVOLUTION?
·The idea migrates from western Europe to eastern
·Lenin: revolutionary movement under conditions of authoritarianism –
oHow do you organize a political party without elections?
oHow do you organize other conditions of a police state? (Tzarist
Russia was authoritarian) oUnder these conditions, membership of the party had to be like
a religious conversion – you occupied a status as opposed to
playing a role
·Workers only capable of “trade union consciousness”
oLeft on their own, workers will never make a revolution. They
are corruptible and all they want is more money for less work
oTherefore, if there is a revolution, it must be brought by mem-
bers outside of the working class – full-time professional
oThis revolution could come from intellectuals, people like Lenin
oNeed “party” to bring them the truth because they cannot see it
on their own: what this means for Marxism. The communist
party instigates a revolution for the working class (a small
minority in the name of the masses)
MARXISM AND ECONOMIC BACKWARDNESS
·Most people illiterate peasants who lived in rural areas (not an indus-
trial society, and therefore the class for whom the revolution would
be did not yet exist)
·Working class revolution, with small working class
·1917: World War and Revolution
oLenin was a marginal figure
oBy the time of the revolution he was exiled, had been arrested
oHad a small party: communist party Bolsheviks
oGerman government sent Lenin back to Russia because Lenin
argued that Russia should withdraw from the war (it was in
war against Germany)
oArrives when the Tsar is about to abdicate, new parties are
forming. Tsar replaced by provisional parliament
oOctober 1917: army falls apart, Lenin and conspiratorial
Bolsheviks seize power
WORLD REVOLUTION OR WORLD POWER
·World revolution fails to materialize
·Brief Bolshevik republic in Munich, Berlin, Hungary… all are wiped out
by forces within these countries. Even within Russia, there is a civil
·From insurrectionalism to statism – supporting communism means
supporting the Soviet Union oWhat it means to be a communist is to support the communist
state: Soviet Russia
oFrom revolution to state interest
·But what is communism or socialism? What will this kind of economy
·Lenin: “Communism = Soviet power + electrification” [everything
·But still does not solve the problem (because you must create an ad-
oSo they argue throughout the 1920’s
STALINISM: TERROR AND PROGRESS
·Instructs the party and the police to go in to the countryside to take
grain from the peasants to send to the West in exchange for the
money that they would use for factory machinery in order to indus-
trialize. They eventually made their own modelled after these ma-
oTerror and secret police
oPurges and famine
Mass terror: wiping out the masses
famines killed somewhere between thirteen to seventeen
STALIN AND AFTER
·Construction of militarized state
·Balance sheet. Won WWII and created an empire that lasted until
1991 but long run growth prospects dismal
oThe Soviet Union devoted between 15-17% of its annual gross
national product to military spending during the 1980s
oFrom 1970-79, however, spending on the military was higher,
usually fluctuating between 21.5 (1973) and 18.6 (1978)
·Late state unification 1871 ·Less economically-backward as Russia, but still playing catch up with
respects to the navy and due to the fact that it was not an entire
country until 1871
·Catching up with Britain: economic modernization without political
oThey have elections, but the government is constructed of
people appointed by the Kaiser
·Lesson number 1: when you are economically “backward,” there are
two things you can do
oAdjust to the existing world economic order
Development. That is what small countries around the
oChange the order
·Always the question: adapt to existing world order to try to change it
·German militarism spawns from this need
·World War I: discrediting of liberalism as a peaceful ideology
oLiberalism is based on trade (“commerce is peaceful” - Con-
oCountries all engaging in capitalism were not peaceful… radical
critism from the right and the left
·Critique of liberalism
·Communism: equality; Nazism: Hierarchy.
·Nazism as reactionary anti-modernism.
oThe world would be a much better place if we were to reject the
worst forms of modernism: notions of equality (because the
world is not made of equals), the urban person as the real
human being (when, in fact, in a healthy society it should be
based on the traditional family, a healthy rural life, military as
opposed to commercial virtues, and hierarchy but with the
natural order restored)
·Explanations for Anti-Semitism:
othe death of Jesus
othe Jesus movement, or what became Christianity, spread bey-
ond the Jewish world. Jews became known as those who
would not accept Jesus as the God’s son
othis resulted in the New Testament. Christians accepted the Old
(Hebrew bible) as a prelude to what would come next
oJews and Christians argued with each other over adherents as
such. Christianity – a religion of faith; Judaism – a religion of
practices oEventually, Jews become a minority
othe French Revolution
oJews are given equal citizenship slowly across Europe (but not
othis created a backlash
owill Jews exist as an independent people who just happen to
live in Poland, Hungary etc., or are they citizens of these
countries who just happen to be Jewish?
oHerzl – founder of Zionism (Jews will only ever be accepted in
their own state) after the Dreifus affair
·c) economic and sociological
oJews were not permitted to own land, so their economic func-
tion was largely commerce, trading. Not high-status jobs
oWith the rise of modern Capitalism, their skills (which were pre-
viously not valued) became very valuable, and money became
more meaningful than the sword
·Flaws of Weimar Republic 1919-1933
oDemocracy - constitution for Germany drawn up after WWI:
political parties, regular elections, human rights…
oNazis at this time were insignificant
oGerman electoral system made it so that you could have very,
very few votes and still win
oHitler and the Nazis were able to use the rules of Liberal demo-
cracy to destroy it
odraconian hate speech laws
oemergency laws: for the president to declare temporary emer-
gency power. When Hitler comes in to power, the emergency
laws are invoked to shut down democracy
·return to militarized state but with race as the key construct
·war of diplomatic recognition in West, war of racial denomination and
extermination in East
·Result: showdown between two great totalitarian regimes – Soviet
Union and Nazi Germany
·Holocaust and Defeat. Changing views of the Holocaust – modernity
versus pre-modern impulses
·new view of the Holocaust – half modernity, half primitive hatred Oct. 22, 2012
Lecture Six: Problems of Democracy (Prof Wong)
-Democracy has increased since 1947.
-53 countries that have break downed democracies and they have not re-
turned to it.
-Democracy is fragile and a new ideologie
-What democracy is supposed to do and how it actually works - highlight
some of the challenges it faces
-Challenges to liberalism, but this lecture is about the challenges democracy
I. Democracy and Equality
• Rules of the game = rule of laws, far more predictable you know what you
can and can not do
• Managing diversity = social economic class, racial areas, gender etc. Di-
verse interest. Moderating effect, compromise. The norms of inclusion,
civil society/ rights, social movements, interest groups because of the
normal pluralism (divide different interest)
• Institutionalised uncertainty = always moral alternatives, you can vote the
government out. Understanding that you can lose. In a counts for a
countability because you can be replaced.
• Variations of democracy = there is no such thing as one fixed model, and
there are no two democracies are alike - quiet flexible. Different social
economic. Allows to different types of context, when society changes so
do the rules. It is adaptable to many contexts and cirsumatances
• Equality= to is fundamental to democracy, it allows us to understand what
democracy is all about.
II. Equality of Opportunity
• Political equality= the democratic process, it is a board for all of us of polit-
ical equality. We are all equal as citizens under the rule of law, it is ex-
tended to everyone as individuals. We all have one vote regardless of
colour of skin, class, etc.
• Procedural democracy= how do we create the rules of the game to proced-
ural democracy are those constitutional rules that give every citizens the
right to vote.
• Polyarchy (Robert Dalh) = two fundamental aspects to it: 1) public contest-
ation (vote, gather together, pluralism in the public sphere) and 2) in-
clusive participation (not simply the game of the elites, universal suf-
frage is critical) III. Equality of Outcome
• Consequences of inclusions
• Political-economic equity
• Procedural versus substantive democracy = rules versus the context
• example: democratic welfare state
-What kind of fair outcomes we want. It began in Europe with the rise of in-
dustrial revolution and capitalism. The more unionisers worked the more
social spending. By voting in blocks we saw the rise of the welfare state.
The outcome of these political rules. Not the focus of the rules of the
game but the outcomes.
IV. Equality of Opportunity - Challenges
1) Collective Action Problem: Voter turn out rates will be no more than 60%
of voters would come out and vote
-On one level we have an interest of who our next Prime Minister will be but
our individually and we will no go and vote. Collective interest but self in-
terest to actually go. We all believe in collective goods but on the indi-
vidual level it is rational.
-Costs (intellectual vote, read the news, discussions)
-Benefits (do you believe your vote will tip the voting scale, and make a dif-
ference for a marginal scale)
-Free-riding (we all rational free-ride some more commented person will
vote and have herd no cost to myself)
-It is not “rational” to vote
-Even if we have to right to vote we do not use it and go vote
2) The Fallacy of Democratic Pluralism: different interest and the inclusi