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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Monday Sept. 10,2012 Lecture One: Introduction Big Themes of Class: • Democracy, Dictatorship, War and Peace (how humans govern themselves and how they deal with events) • The point of social science is to try to make sense of the world we live in. • How do we make sense of it? -> simplifying by focusing on what matters and ignoring what doesn’t. That way the world is less scary. What is important and what is not. • Democracy and War • Is the world becoming more democratic and more peaceful • Francis Fukuyama (something was happening ie. the tearing down of the Berlin Wall) • Summer 1989 • Hegel ->philosopher (when see the unfolding of history and the history of human consciousness • History of Human Consciousness • We learn the history of people, wars • History of philosophy • Clash of ideas what does not move on. The reality that is left after the people is the idea. • Not kings, queens, presidents, prime ministers or celebrities: they steal ideas, big ideas. • When you see a war, what you really see out there is the clash of ideas. • Industry, economy, religious practice are material manifestation but is what is really going on the ideas that inform those practices. • Ideas and the Organization of Human Society • Really big ideas that are organized by human society • Ancient society • Medieval society • Liberal Democratic state • History moves on • Hegel and Liberal State • Hegel and the Battle of Jena: “Victory of liberty, equality and fraternity” • Argues that this is the “end of history” • No new ideas forthcoming the can challenge the BIG IDEA. • Do I need to know all of this, NO. • What’s essential? -> the big ideas, for each age you study the big events • Fukuyama • Hegel was right but he was a bit off. • Nazi and Communism would still pose a challenge to Liberal Democracy. There had to be a war to get rid of it. • The big challenges have been defeated in the realm of ideas (fascism and commu- nism) - THE REAL REALM • Challengers •Yes, communism still there but outside of Cuba, North Korea nobody willing to die for it or betray their country for it. A POWERLESS IDEA. •Christian, Jewish, Islamic fundamentalism: yes they are there but they are not universal and therefore not a real challenge. • Where does that leave us? • World of peace, trade, democracy • Yes, we still have wars but they are not wars of big ideas or if they are liberalism wins • examples of Russia • We should look for big ideological challengers • But in this sense, history is over. -The world has changed • Clash of Civilizations (An examination of Huntington’s arguments) • End of the cold war, what is going to happen once the Berlin Wall comes down. What is the world order going to be like. • A Pessimistic Rejoinder • From 1973 the liberal democracies grew to 114 but at the same time some coun- tries never stayed with liberal democracies. • Huntington sees the world not through rose coloured glasses but 9/11 • Alternative World Order? • Fukuyama - a narrow reading of world history. It is a really long time and calming it has end is a short view. He is not just telling a story of the past and the future. End of history in the west. The end of western conflict. Huntington believes that much but he does not believe the end of the ideas. He thinks Fukuyama over states his case. • Liberal peace and prosperity are illusory: • inequality • contested citizenship • exclusion • Universal liberal civilization where everyone is one with the world. Do we live in that. • What still matters most is our national interest. ie. Canada first. • Can’t go by Fukuyama’s view, Huntington looks to the past and a really deep one. Asks not what are the rival ideas but a fair more question “we should ask ourselves, who are we.” Because there are billions of people out there asking that question. There are people in the world asking that question who will be unhappy with the answer. • Civilizational Fault Lines • Re-drawing of the world map • Not a world of country or contents but a world of civilizations • Who Are We? • The essence of a society. • Defining it and its people. • Why Clash? • We should expect conflict because of these differences and how would we behave. • As long as civilizational lines exist as they do we should expect clash • Difference = conflict • Interests = conflict • Kinship = conflict • The West and the Rest • Fukuyama sees the West has won over the Rest. Falling of the Berlin Wall is the ending of big Ideas • Huntington sees world order as the West ruling over the Rest and the Rest as be- ing the rival of the West. • Huntington fears the rise of Islamic civilization. The end of history thesis of Fukuya- ma is just presumed. Fighting Islam is just a war of nation states but a war of civi- lization and a war of a civilization without a nation state. He is also worried about the rise of China. The realities of authoritarian system. The rise of China is really testing the west and rising in its own rules. It is a rival model of merderaty. • We are in a Transitional Moment because out of the top five world’s largest economies 4 are no western. Mon. Sept. 17, 2012 Lecture Two: Modern Democracy (wong) -In once there are a lot of virtues of democracy, imperfect -Apartheid in South Africa: the gov’t passed laws that segregated the whites and blacks. It also was about political, racial, economic segregation. This existed until 1994. After this they were able to live under a more free society -Democracy is very attractable but it is still very new. People have fought for it and are still fighting for it. We can not take it for granted. - Democracy is very appealing. Huntington argued that we see a third wave in the 1970s of democracy. In 1975 democracy countries was 29 % and in 2010 it is 59%. - We see in the post war period we see economic growth, we see authoritarian leading to wars and conflict. As the world modernizes democracy is more appealing and coun- tries turn towards it. I. Democracy Virtue - Because of its virtues democracy is appealing - We can organize ourselves as a sovereign (Aristotle) - One virtue democracy rejects traditional forms of gov’t order ie. kings, etc - Democracy is a form of political order that we all have a say ie. right to vote, participate in politics • Liberty= the under fundamental of democracy is liberty, freedom ie. freedom of speech, rights etc. We can disagree among each other and the holder of power. It is mediated through institutions • Equality = In the political sphere we are all in the political sphere equals no matter race, gender, etc. Everyone no matter what has the same equal vote. Modern liberalism is about the individual. We participate as equal individuals, protected by the rule of law. • Rule of law= The means that we do politics, play politics etc it is all laid out in rules. Democracy goes by the rule of law not the rule of man. • Pluralism = As individuals enjoying the rights and freedoms of democracy we live in a pluralist society with multiple ideas, views. Democracy is about making a compromise. • Institutionalized uncertainty = Elections, we elected those who are in gov’t. We can vote gov’t in and out. There are winners and losers.Even if you are voted out you are not thrown in jail or anything you can come back and run again. The belief I lose today I can win tomorrow. II. Democracy Fragility • Breakdown and return to democracy = number of such breakdowns 26, % of all democracies 1974 - 2010 is 16%. Breakdown and No return to democracy is 27 and per- cent is 16%. Even though it is appealing and great virtues and fought for it can be taken away. ie. Thailand had a democracy in the 90s and in 2006 a ban on political parties no more democracy. III. Democracy as a Process • There are breakdowns to democracy and its still a new concept and is always chang- ing and is a process. It is new in Canada, with vote rights for women (1918), other racial minorities in the 1960s. • No matter how you want to image and date it, it is a long term process. In which many have fought for the right to vote and experienced extremely fragile. It just does not ap- pear, process = foundation, choice of democracy and the choices that make out democ- racy work. A. Building Democracy’s Foundation • Modernization Theory = how society modernizes. First you have economic then social and the political (dem.). •Economic transformation = traditional economy (farming) over time your economy transforms and you trade and you start building roads and integrating technology into your economy. Then there is a growth and a bloom in Industrial revolution. •Economic development = You just farm enough for you to eat. You become wage earners and work for someone. This leads to growing your economy. You see the rise of the middle class. •Demographic change = we see urbanization, people moving form the country side to the city. The size of family decrease (do not need as much children to work the farm, instead have them go to the city to work). We see women becoming wage earners. We see change of the family from traditional to modern ie. women working •Social change = health care, modern education, the secular of church. You be- come a modern citizen. Literate for political rights. •Demand for political rights= You demand for rule of law. When you are able to un- derstand everything and know about it you want it. Democracy is the finale stage of modernization. •We should expect more democracy when countries modernize more and then they will become democracies once they are that middle zone. •It is not just economic modernization but also social. You join groups when you are more social society. In a traditional society your focus is on yourself and working your farm. In these groups they talked, debated about issues basically they under- stand what it meant to be a collective fate. Forming associations, interest groups. •Social capital is about political culture. Democracy’s foundation rests on certain po- litical culture not just economic and social. •Democratic Culture = a relatively narrow base, both in time and space. You need to prove that people outside of this North West Euro world have this culture and democracy. Culture based on descend, secular culture, it is drawn on from Western experiences. It is hard to find this democratic culture outside the West. •Cultural Obstacles = Asian values, in a set of Democratic values is an off set and go against democracy. It is not enough to be economic and socially modern you also have to be cultural (Sam Huntington). Huntington also says Islam and Catholic are hostel to democracy. •Modernization theory in the West = economic, social, cultural, political all go hand in hand. B. Choosing Democracy • It is a process and it just does not appear over night. Laying down the foundation. As you modernize you just become democratic. In the end no matter what democracy has to be chosen. Somewhere along the way people have to chose democracy. • SouthKorea - Roh Tae Woo (1987) = He choses democracy, when everyone thought it would be an authoritarian regime. He chose elections. • Chile - Pinochet (1988) = Brutally dictator, and under his regime we see economic reform and it grows. In 1980 says “I am going to stay President and we are going to have a referendum in 1988 if you want me to stay President.” In 1988 they said no to him. • South Africa - FW de Klerk (1989) = Takes over the apartheid party and begins to reform the constitution. • Soviet Union - Gorbachev (late 1980s)= He wanted to elect corruption. And chose to reform and end the Soviet Union. • Choosing Democracy When? • Bottom - up pressure, demands - riots, conflict, society does not want to be au- thoritarian rule anymore • International pressure- US pressure, Canadian, ie in South Africa • Legitimacy crisis - They are not viewed highly anymore be there people. C. Making Democracy Work • Institutions- “rules of the game” -We use strategy ie. elections • RIghts and limits - rules that say what you can and can not do. • Winners and Losers - these rules are not neutral, there are consequences. • Presidentialism and Parliamentarianism • Presidentialism = Members of congress are not part of the presidenercey. Pres- ident is not part of congress, they are elected differently. The people are divid- ed. Executive versus legislative branch. Horwoitzs says this is more modern and works better if you have the rules of the game down. • Parliamentarianism= In Canada we vote for members of the party and then there party leader wins. Cabinet ministers are chosen by the PM. Lead to ma- jority rule and we have a powerful PM. Linz says they are good for young democracies and ethic differences. They encourage coalition and the sharing of power. Executive reflects legislative branch. • Electoral Institutions In Canada we have first past the pole. The person in your riding just has to win the seat with the most votes. Mismatch in the number of % popular votes and the number of seats. You do not vote for the candidate you vote for the party. • Making Democracy Work • The “rules of the game”- these rules have consequences • Consequential • Reflect goals • Vary among democracies Mon. Sept. 24, 2012 Lecture Three: Constant and Liberalism (kopstein) I. Benjamin Constant (1767 - 1830) • Swiss born, French intellectual and politician • Fervent Liberal • Context: French Revolution and aftermath • Question: how should free people govern themselves • Conservative today but during his time he was thought to be a liberal • Liberalism = freedom • Once you got rid of monarchy (inheritable rule), what would self rule and freedom con- sistence of. • What is freedom characterized is the question to think about during the aftermath of the French revolution and in general. The bases of classical liberalism is the freedom from tyranny. example the congress in the US has to agree on a bill passed by the Pres- ident to ensure he is not a tyrant or becomes one II. Model Rejected • Liberty of ancients: the act of governing and being governing. (being part of the gov- ernment). Collective sense. • Participatory ie. Ancient Greece they would get together and govern together and ev- eryone who paid taxes and were citizens would get a chance to govern. • Direct • Public (freedom of the community) not Private (whatever he or she wants to do as long as it does not affect the rights of others) liberty • Freedom of the community - self government. You rule yourselves and in turn yourself is ruled. There is no ruling from outsiders. You are not ruled by necessarily an hereditary monarch. • Freedom is collective • Dependent upon a class of people who did not engage in commerce or even work. ie. Greeks contrasted commerce with the household. • Big decisions were decisions on war. III. Liberty if Moderns • Not so much “freedom to” as “freedom from” (Isaiah Berlin) • The fundamental sense of freedom is freedom from tyranny • Legal protections • Limited government • Freedom is individual rather than communal • All driven by “commerce” and private property instead of war • Society should be based on commerce - Constant • Even the idea of a constitution • Constant looked at traditional notions of freedom that can go with the notion of free- dom of society. IV. Contradictions of Constant • Modern liberty is better both than ancient liberty and pre-modern “despotism” (French Kings) • Moderns care more about “freedom from” • We prefer “representative” to “direct government “that just leaves us alone to be happy and get rich • But he hedges his at the end of the lecture • Believes what we talked about before is not enough • Liberty of ancients creeps back in through modern notions, they contradict themselves because they are dealing with hard issues. V. Ancient liberty and Plato • There is no sense of the whole • Plato in his last dialogue the “Laws” offers a grim prophesy to which Constant and per- haps all moderns - seem liable. • Plato says “Satisfying lower-order desires (what today we may call modern con- sumerism) temperance, only to give rise to a conflicted soul, seeking what is noble that once existed but now seems blatantly lost..” VI. Traditional Society • Thucydides, “talks about the Peloponnesian War and there was a campaign when they go concur Sicily and they lose and he says when they lost the soldiers cried for three days.” What does it mean they cried for three days, you can’t do that. Lets assume they did cry and that was the sensibility of the time. It was a different world, it was a world of scarcity. Most of the world were farmers. • Non - market societies, there was no currencies or there was multiple currencies com- peting. You would trade things • Family life, they were not just the immediate family but extended and collective. All family members would be punished (vendetta). • Affective orientation (Athenian’s response to loss in Sicily - they cried for three days) • Ascriptive roles (versus achievement) VII. Political Authority and the State • What is a state? Definition = monopoly of a use of a given force • But in traditional society, no distinction between public and private authority. • Authority relations based on personal dependence and love and affection • No clear lines of territorial authority • Public Administration, • Creation of Modern State, ex. Louis XIV (palace of Versailles, to stop from the nobles from rising) • Taxation and system of personal retainers of “King” who competed with local lords for power. This becomes modern bureaucracy. • Out of this comes the idea of “sovereignty” VIII. Liberalism: Four Genetic Features • Individualism: not family or clan • Proceduralism: rule of law, limited - constitutional, bureaucracy • Markets: economic and political. It dominates not just that we have them. You can choice your leaders. • Toleration: religious, ethnic, gender - relies on hypocrisy • To the extent these are not present, you’re not dealing with a liberal order IX. Liberalism: Developmental Stages • Transformation: (revolutionary or evolutionary beak from monarchy) • Consolidation: exclude those social elements that threaten the new order • Inclusion: include those elements, that if not included will rebel against the order • Never perfected, always evolving always new groups demanding inclusion. • Liberalism is never perfect, Mon. Oct. 1, 2012 Lecture Four: The Rise of the West and Marxism (modernity) (kopstein) -Social economic changes were all a puzzle piece. The response that Constant embod- ied, seeing a society based on commerce thats followed by laws and regulations. This big turning point kicks off the social sciences. What happened and what was happening. I. Europe -Looking at a contemporary map of Euro -The innovations that started in Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries that slowly spread to the rest of Euro. II. Origins of Modern World Economy -Twin revolution (16th - 19th centuries), agricultural and industrial -Agricultural revolution: may be hyperbole to use the “world revolution” here. Ex. The less seeds of grain you have to keep for the next year means the more surplus you have. III. Industrial Revolution -Originates in the 18th century -More approx.. designated as a revolution Ex. raw cotton processed in British factories 1760: 2.5 million pounds 1787: 2.2 million -Amount of Iron processed into steel in English factories: 1788: 68, 000 tons -Proceeded huge changes in domestic consumption -Luxuries come to be seen and mere decencies and decencies came be seen as neces- sities -Distribution highly uneven but now creation of middle class that risen from manual labour to professional or entrepreneurial states. IV. Social Results 1. Capacity to produce surplus 2. Increasing complexity of division of labour (more specialized) ex. medicine man be- fore (health and spiritual) now they are separated doctor and spiritual leader. We de- pend on others to survive. 3. New forms of social consciousness How are we to understand this? V. Political Consequences -Demise of royal absolutism. The status of the royal changes to refinement or gets their heads cut off. -Victory of parliament over Kings. -Selection of leaders by election -Rise of political parties (those who view the old traditional ways and those who viewed the new modern ways) -Universal rights without reference to class -As society becomes wealthier more people want to get involved and rule -Need to accommodated new groups within politics VI. Karl Marx -How to analyze a society? -The manifesto is written for people who had just learned to read -What does one look for first? -Queens and Kings? -Dominant Ideas? - philosophy -What kind of food they eat, alcohol they drink etc. VII. Marx and Materialism -Feuerbach and critique of German idealism (Hegel) “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in versions; ways the point is to change it.” - Marx, Theses on Feuerbach -History starts with the critique of the dominate ideas. - Feuerbach -Materialism: What is God? - radical idea man created man and man created God. -But for Marx: this does not go far enough. -Why do we need religion? Injustice. You mist go to the material causes. VIII. Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism -Hegel: Consciousness creates society -Marx disagrees: consciousness does not create being, ‘being creates consciousness.” -Materialist conception of history -Not material possessions but the doctrine that nothing exists except matter and its movements and modifications. The doctrine that consciousness and will are wholly due to material agency. IX. Materialist Conception of History -Humans make their own means of survival -Works is natural, humans are creative -History is history of class struggles and forms of domination: history is struggle, but ma- terial struggle. -Culture, ideas, art, law, morality, religion. . . all determined by mode of production: “su- perstructure.” -Thing about morality, X. Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism - Slave, feudal, capitalist, socialist/communist = Modes of production - “Revolutions are the locomotives of history.” - Marx Capital - Material life determines everything in life - History moves from one stage to the next like Hegel it has a meaning, movement and an END! XI. How does History unfold -Exploitation ex. noble takes half of peasants crops -New classes grab power for their particular interested but claim it is in the universal in- terest. -They create an ideology and excerise state power. The State is nothing more than exec- utive committee of ruling class -The class struggles end when the class ends. -When does this come about? -Marx’s analysis of social orders: feudalism to capitalism and then his analysis of capi- talism. -Immiseration and class consciousness -They would be a class in themselves and for themselves. XII. Story of Capitalism -Feudal society: two classes nobles and peasantry -Rise of new class (bourgeois/ capitalist) and industrial/ urban proletariat -Bourgeois seizes power in thee name of all but exploits proletariat / working class XIII. Capitalism -Creates unprecedented wealth -But it warps human relations and culture -Capitalist exploitation is at once the most subtle and the most extreme -But workers (the proletariat) will redeem history: no exploitation and truth rather than ideology. -Marx does not hate capitalism XIV. Marx: History and Politics -Liberal democracy: is presented to us as in the interest of all but actually in the interest or ruling class. Formal freedoms versus substantive reality (how can you excerise free- doms if you are poor) -It is really about capitalism: Marx is a student of capitalism -For rights are an illusion, ideology is a mask for power. You can’t see out of it because you are in it. -What does Marx mean by communism? It is utopian and unrealistic? XV. Contradictions of Capitalism -Production is a public activity but is held in private hands -What is a revolution? Political versus social revolution -What will the revolution happen? Free will versus determinism -Problem of false consciousness (what if the workers do not want a revolution) -The parties of Chinese and Soviet communism is not what Marx was talking about. XVI. Questions -Stabilizing mechanisms of capitalism (welfare state?) -What is the role of the entrepreneur or capitalist? -Does not talk much about them -Is the state really just a projection of economic power? -Does the state have an power of economic power yes at times it does and at times it is private wealth -Limits to growth? -Yet, class analysis is powerful stuff, as is the notion of the “force” inherent in the capital- ist order. Oct. 15, 2012 Lecture Five (Kopstein) COMMUNISM AND FASCISM ·Salvationist ideologies as opposed to incrementalist ·A “once and for all” attempt to perfect humanity ·The human toll that both of these ideologies and their social institu- tions exacted constituted the basis upon which our modern notions of human rights depend ·No holocaust  no modern conception of human rights LIBERALISM AND ITS CRISIS th ·Long 19 century is peak of liberalism’s appeal (end of the Napoleonic wars until WWI) ·Liberal institutions develop even where the social basis is not obvi- ously present ·Countries mirror England’s parliamentary systems (elections with gi- ant amounts of illiteracy, corruption, government by one party with minor changes in undeveloped nations) in an attempt to fake liberal democracy oThese democracies go in to some kind of crisis (falsified election results, corrupt constituencies) ·People started questioning whether liberalism was working the way it actually was supposed to work because of these poor countries LIBERALISM AND THE WORKING CLASS ·Extension of the franchise (to the working class, to women, to other- wise marginalized and discriminated-against ethnic minorities) ·Rise of Social Democracy in Western Europe. Evolutionary socialism and reconciliation with liberal democracy: electoral socialism (Edgar Bernstein  evolutionary Marxism) WHAT ABOUT THE REVOLUTION? ·The idea migrates from western Europe to eastern ·Lenin: revolutionary movement under conditions of authoritarianism – Russia oHow do you organize a political party without elections? oHow do you organize other conditions of a police state? (Tzarist Russia was authoritarian) oUnder these conditions, membership of the party had to be like a religious conversion – you occupied a status as opposed to playing a role oConspiratorial methods ·Workers only capable of “trade union consciousness” oLeft on their own, workers will never make a revolution. They are corruptible and all they want is more money for less work oTherefore, if there is a revolution, it must be brought by mem- bers outside of the working class – full-time professional party-members oThis revolution could come from intellectuals, people like Lenin oNeed “party” to bring them the truth because they cannot see it on their own: what this means for Marxism. The communist party instigates a revolution for the working class (a small minority in the name of the masses) MARXISM AND ECONOMIC BACKWARDNESS ·Most people illiterate peasants who lived in rural areas (not an indus- trial society, and therefore the class for whom the revolution would be did not yet exist) ·Working class revolution, with small working class ·1917: World War and Revolution oLenin was a marginal figure oBy the time of the revolution he was exiled, had been arrested oHad a small party: communist party Bolsheviks oGerman government sent Lenin back to Russia because Lenin argued that Russia should withdraw from the war (it was in war against Germany) oArrives when the Tsar is about to abdicate, new parties are forming. Tsar replaced by provisional parliament oOctober 1917: army falls apart, Lenin and conspiratorial Bolsheviks seize power WORLD REVOLUTION OR WORLD POWER ·World revolution fails to materialize ·Brief Bolshevik republic in Munich, Berlin, Hungary… all are wiped out by forces within these countries. Even within Russia, there is a civil war ·From insurrectionalism to statism – supporting communism means supporting the Soviet Union oWhat it means to be a communist is to support the communist state: Soviet Russia oFrom revolution to state interest ·But what is communism or socialism? What will this kind of economy look like: ·Lenin: “Communism = Soviet power + electrification” [everything modern] ·But still does not solve the problem (because you must create an ad- vanced economy) oSo they argue throughout the 1920’s STALINISM: TERROR AND PROGRESS ·Instructs the party and the police to go in to the countryside to take grain from the peasants to send to the West in exchange for the money that they would use for factory machinery in order to indus- trialize. They eventually made their own modelled after these ma- chines. oIndustrialization oCollectivization oTerror and secret police oPurges and famine Mass terror: wiping out the masses famines famines killed somewhere between thirteen to seventeen million people STALIN AND AFTER ·Construction of militarized state ·Balance sheet. Won WWII and created an empire that lasted until 1991 but long run growth prospects dismal ·Military expenditure oThe Soviet Union devoted between 15-17% of its annual gross national product to military spending during the 1980s oFrom 1970-79, however, spending on the military was higher, usually fluctuating between 21.5 (1973) and 18.6 (1978) GERMANY ·Late state unification 1871 ·Less economically-backward as Russia, but still playing catch up with respects to the navy and due to the fact that it was not an entire country until 1871 ·Catching up with Britain: economic modernization without political modernization oThey have elections, but the government is constructed of people appointed by the Kaiser ·Lesson number 1: when you are economically “backward,” there are two things you can do oAdjust to the existing world economic order Development. That is what small countries around the world do. oChange the order ·Always the question: adapt to existing world order to try to change it ·German militarism spawns from this need ·World War I: discrediting of liberalism as a peaceful ideology oLiberalism is based on trade (“commerce is peaceful” - Con- stant) oCountries all engaging in capitalism were not peaceful… radical critism from the right and the left NAZISM/FASCISM ·Critique of liberalism ·Communism: equality; Nazism: Hierarchy. ·Nazism as reactionary anti-modernism. oThe world would be a much better place if we were to reject the worst forms of modernism: notions of equality (because the world is not made of equals), the urban person as the real human being (when, in fact, in a healthy society it should be based on the traditional family, a healthy rural life, military as opposed to commercial virtues, and hierarchy but with the natural order restored) ·Explanations for Anti-Semitism: ·a) religion othe death of Jesus othe Jesus movement, or what became Christianity, spread bey- ond the Jewish world. Jews became known as those who would not accept Jesus as the God’s son othis resulted in the New Testament. Christians accepted the Old (Hebrew bible) as a prelude to what would come next oJews and Christians argued with each other over adherents as such. Christianity – a religion of faith; Judaism – a religion of practices oEventually, Jews become a minority ·b) emancipation othe French Revolution oJews are given equal citizenship slowly across Europe (but not in Russia) othis created a backlash owill Jews exist as an independent people who just happen to live in Poland, Hungary etc., or are they citizens of these countries who just happen to be Jewish? oHerzl – founder of Zionism (Jews will only ever be accepted in their own state) after the Dreifus affair ·c) economic and sociological oJews were not permitted to own land, so their economic func- tion was largely commerce, trading. Not high-status jobs throughout Europe. oWith the rise of modern Capitalism, their skills (which were pre- viously not valued) became very valuable, and money became more meaningful than the sword ·Flaws of Weimar Republic 1919-1933 oDemocracy - constitution for Germany drawn up after WWI: political parties, regular elections, human rights… oNazis at this time were insignificant oGerman electoral system made it so that you could have very, very few votes and still win ohighly proportional oHitler and the Nazis were able to use the rules of Liberal demo- cracy to destroy it odraconian hate speech laws oemergency laws: for the president to declare temporary emer- gency power. When Hitler comes in to power, the emergency laws are invoked to shut down democracy NAZISM/FASCISM ·return to militarized state but with race as the key construct ·war of diplomatic recognition in West, war of racial denomination and extermination in East ·Result: showdown between two great totalitarian regimes – Soviet Union and Nazi Germany ·Holocaust and Defeat. Changing views of the Holocaust – modernity versus pre-modern impulses ·new view of the Holocaust – half modernity, half primitive hatred Oct. 22, 2012 Lecture Six: Problems of Democracy (Prof Wong) -Democracy has increased since 1947. -53 countries that have break downed democracies and they have not re- turned to it. -Democracy is fragile and a new ideologie -What democracy is supposed to do and how it actually works - highlight some of the challenges it faces -Challenges to liberalism, but this lecture is about the challenges democracy faces within. I. Democracy and Equality • Rules of the game = rule of laws, far more predictable you know what you can and can not do • Managing diversity = social economic class, racial areas, gender etc. Di- verse interest. Moderating effect, compromise. The norms of inclusion, civil society/ rights, social movements, interest groups because of the normal pluralism (divide different interest) • Institutionalised uncertainty = always moral alternatives, you can vote the government out. Understanding that you can lose. In a counts for a countability because you can be replaced. • Variations of democracy = there is no such thing as one fixed model, and there are no two democracies are alike - quiet flexible. Different social economic. Allows to different types of context, when society changes so do the rules. It is adaptable to many contexts and cirsumatances • Equality= to is fundamental to democracy, it allows us to understand what democracy is all about. II. Equality of Opportunity • Political equality= the democratic process, it is a board for all of us of polit- ical equality. We are all equal as citizens under the rule of law, it is ex- tended to everyone as individuals. We all have one vote regardless of colour of skin, class, etc. • Procedural democracy= how do we create the rules of the game to proced- ural democracy are those constitutional rules that give every citizens the right to vote. • Polyarchy (Robert Dalh) = two fundamental aspects to it: 1) public contest- ation (vote, gather together, pluralism in the public sphere) and 2) in- clusive participation (not simply the game of the elites, universal suf- frage is critical) III. Equality of Outcome • Consequences of inclusions • Political-economic equity • Procedural versus substantive democracy = rules versus the context • example: democratic welfare state -What kind of fair outcomes we want. It began in Europe with the rise of in- dustrial revolution and capitalism. The more unionisers worked the more social spending. By voting in blocks we saw the rise of the welfare state. The outcome of these political rules. Not the focus of the rules of the game but the outcomes. IV. Equality of Opportunity - Challenges 1) Collective Action Problem: Voter turn out rates will be no more than 60% of voters would come out and vote -On one level we have an interest of who our next Prime Minister will be but our individually and we will no go and vote. Collective interest but self in- terest to actually go. We all believe in collective goods but on the indi- vidual level it is rational. -Costs (intellectual vote, read the news, discussions) -Benefits (do you believe your vote will tip the voting scale, and make a dif- ference for a marginal scale) -Free-riding (we all rational free-ride some more commented person will vote and have herd no cost to myself) -It is not “rational” to vote -Even if we have to right to vote we do not use it and go vote 2) The Fallacy of Democratic Pluralism: different interest and the inclusi
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