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Lecture 16

POL101Y1 Lecture 16: International System - Guest Lecture

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Political Science
Hansen Jung

International System The Study of the International System (started 1916) The Challenge: How can the system explain both conflict and cooperation? Conflict: • How can we prevent such carnage in the future? • Is there something about the international system that makes it prone to violence? • Depends on your view: • Zombieland - vigilance and security (realist) • Optimistic - international organizations (liberal) Cooperation: The international system is also a space for extensive cooperation • Especially when there is joint interest What is a system? System: interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole • Assumption is problematic - Unified whole is very theoretical • Is the ‘system’natural or designed? material or social? • States must be vigilant and self-defend as the international system has no legislation or judiciary to moderate or give any rules (zombieland rules) • Explains why states what they do -After 9/11, US attacked Iran and Iraq To understand, you need to look at: 1. Units - identify the interdependent units that interact with each other • STATES 2. Structure - identify the unify whole that shows interaction (unified whole) • Defined by what we lack • ANARCHY - lack of government 1 Background The Holy Roman Empire - main actor in 17th century Europe • Voltaire: it was “neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire” • Heads: Pope and Emperor (political rep of the pope) - unification of church & state • They believe the empire has the divine right to rule any place that Christians live in • Political power is mostly held by local kings/principalities - +200 in Germany • Various rebellions: against divine authority of the pope and emperor - wanted to practice their own religion (Henry VIII overriding the empire’s right and established his own religion) • Spurred religious wars • Attempt to solve: Peace ofAugsburg (1555): • Established a rule (cornerstone to today’s international system): “Cuius regio, eius religio” - “he who governs, sets the religion” • New emperor, Ferdinand, tried to remove all of these newly established rules (counter- reform) • Bohemia and Prague were worried about the new emperor • The defenestration (thrown out of window) of Prague - when Ferdinand’s catholic lords took Protestants and threw them out of the window - survived • Began the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) - began as a war of religion but ended being states (ex: France) against the Holy Roman Empire The Peace of Westphalia (1648) End the Thirty Years War - avoid future religious wars Established: • ‘Cuius regio, eius religio’ • The principles of sovereignty (map now looks like today’s) • Holy Roman Emperor no longer has authority over areas outside his borders International system as the Westphalian System - same principles established in Westphalia • I.S was established differently throughout history (past IS isn’t the same) • Westphalian System designed from historical events - have been changes to the structure since then 2 Terms of Westphalia SOVEREIGNTY 1. Internal: exclusive and absolute authority to the sovereign (emperor, king, etc) • Weber:state is a “human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimat
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