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POL101 LEC+READINGS landscape word 2.doc
POL101 LEC+READINGS landscape word 2.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

September 10 2012narrow reading of world historyLecture 1 limited historically and geographicallyKopsteinillusorythe point of political science is to try to make sense of the world we live in Liberal peace and prosperityin a scholarly senseinequality constructed citizenship exclusionby simplifying by focusing on what matters and what doesntFukuyama referring to Western conflictnot the end of ideas but the end of western ideologyFrancis Fukuyama summer 1989no more rival ideasHegelprof of psychpopulated of a world of democracytells us more than kings queens and warsshould be the end of warsthey passeconomies become independenttells us the case of ideasrealitynew ideasthey steal ideasHuntington would argue this is not the case history that is taught through what has been articulatedworld is still full of conflicthistory is the history of human consciousnesseswar over territoryindustry economics religion are all material manifestationideasworld of liberal peace does not exist big ideasorganize human societywhat matters is national interestdifferent ideasWorld of Conflict and Exclusionancient societieshistory of philosopherseven within countriesex native Canadianmedieval societies countries and separation are proofs of thisliberal democracywhat we live inuniversal civilizationuniversal powerideas of freedom justice etc changeHuntington does not see this powerHegelbuying into this thesis will allow us to rest easy and fallliberty equality fraternitypast ideasthis will never surpassideas will never be surpassedend of historyyou know because no other ideas will comewho are we answer is dissatisfiedseparate what mattersconversations about dignity and inhumanity aspirations moving out of Fukuyamapoverty void by optimism but brought back by pessimismsomewhat agreed with Hegalcarved up by civilization linesbig challenges to liberal democracy had been defeated in realm of ideas defined by common objective elements such as language history fascism and communism The Real Realmreligion customs institutions and by subjective selfidentification of ChallengerspeopleHuntingtoncommunismpowerless ideareligious fundamentalismnot universal therefor not a real challengeWhy Clashwars are not wars of big ideasliberalism winsconflictdifferenceinterestskinshipRussia more about power not challenging global ordercivilization differences are the source of conflictin this sense history is overFukuyamathe west and the restHuntingtonthe west vs the restClass of Civilizations An Examination of Huntingtons argumentsWongrise of the Islam as a moral alternativeview of a victorsense of a victorknows the history fighting Muslims is the war of civilization the idea that wonenemy of a rival without a statenew type of conflict that America from 19732010is not good at combating40 to 114 increase of countries that are democratic 50 decrease shows shallowness of history50 of the 50 never returnedfears ChinaBeijing mocks Washingtons consensusFukuyamas view1rise of China is test to Americameans as individuals enjoying the rights and freedomsrival model of non western modelmultiple interests and ideas and they all matterfall of USA Europe implodes this model is very attractivemaking compromises in this pluralismsHuntington does not see the end of history but a transitional institutionalized uncertaintymomentcore of democracy is electionsthe ability to elect the fears future conflictrepresentativesempowers us to vote a government in and outSeptember 17 2012winners and losersLecture 2Modern Democracylosers are not voted out but can come back and try againdemocracies are fragile and imperfectlose today I can win tomorrowApartheid in South Africademocracy even though it is appealing is extremely fragileinhumane political systems imaginableimmorality actillegal to have sexual relations blackswhiteDemocracy as a Processpass lawover the age 16 black must have a pass to enter in an So far as I know citizenship in no country carries with it the area of whitesright to vote The right to vote is a conferred right in every society at its core about racial segregation case This parliament says upon what terms men shall vote democracy is still very new and appealingNo Oriental whether he be Hindu Japanese or Chinese acquires economic growth tremendous modernizationthe right to vote simply by the fact citizenshipHugh Guthrie MP democracys virtue fragility and as process1920a long term evolutionary processVirtuefoundation the choice of democracy and he choices we make that make organize ourselves as the peopledemocracys workpolyarchy political order in which citizenship is extended to a relatively they dont just appearhigh proportion of adults and the rights of citizenship include the 1 Building Democracys Foundationopportunity to oppose and vote out the highest officials in the governmentmodernization theorya 20th century political system is democratic to the extent that its most first economic transformation followed by social and last politicalpowerful collective decisionmakers are selected through fair honest and traditional economyagriculture periodic elections in which candidates freely compete for votes and in industrial economyinfrastructurewhich virtually all the adult population is eligible to votemodern economic developmentwagesall have the opportunity vote to come to a collective agreementthis leads to urbanizationdemographic changes ex increased female labour participationlibertysocial change as societies modernize they become more literate the fundamental of democracyuse modern science health care secularlizaion of societyfreedoms expressed in terms of rightsdemand for political rightsthe right to disagree among each other and with the government basically how the west developedequalityexpect more democracy as nations modernize automaticallydemocraticpolitical citizenshipsocial bases of societysocial changeall as individuals are politically equal ex votes weighted the engage in civil societysame wayforming social movements with a pointmodern liberalism is about the individualNorthern Italians are happier with their governmentrule of lawthey are engaged in the communityequalities are protected under the rule of lawthe means of politics are governed by rules ex constitutionDemocratic CulturepluralismDemocracy evolved in the 18th and 19th centuries in northern sum of liberty equalitywestern Europe thus democracy has a relatively narrow base 2both in time and space and the evidence has to be produced BLAIS CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING ELECTORAL SYSTEMthat is is the natural form of rule for peoples outside of those two sets of judgementsempirical likely consequences of the various optionsnarrow perimetersGeorge Kennan 1977normative how good or bad hard to find democratic culture out of the westWhy do we believe it is a good thing that legislators be chose by the one of the cultural obstacles is the idea of Asian valuespeople in a fair and honest electionAsians prioritize the item over peopleelectoral system set of rules which govern the process by which citizens values that you prioritize kinship and family or societyopinions about candidates and parties are expressedsupposedly hostile to society policies adopted by elected representatives are more likely to reflect the Confucian democracy is clearly a contradiction in termsviews of the majorityneed to culturally modernized conflict is more likely to be dealt peaceful in a democracy2 Choosing Democracyaccountability policies that correspond to the views of the greatest assumption that democracy over nightnumber of electorsnot that way because people must choose democracylegislators are given an incentive to be sensitive of the views of their South KoreaRoh Tae Woo 1987constituents so they will be reelectedChilePinochet 1988representation by reflection vote for candidates that represent their South AfricaFW de Klerk 1989views legislature is likely to reflect the overall distribution of viewpoints Soviet UnionGorbachev late 1980sand perspectives in societyWhenelections allow citizens to resolve their conflicts peacefullybottomup pressure demands3 main reasons why losers peacefully accept the outcome of electioncivil society rebel movements economic modernizationbelieve that some basic rights will not be infringed upon by the international pressuregovernmentUS and Canadian pressurebelieve that even though they may have lost this time there is a legitimacy crisispossibility they will win another timeno longer viewed legitimate by their own peoplethey recognize that the procedure is legitimate3 Making Democracy Workdoes each vote count equallyinstitutions rules of the gameeffective government capable of effectively managing the staterights and limits are imposedcompromisewinners and losersgovernments that make a sense of accommodationPresidentialism and ParliamentarianismLINZ PERILS OF PRESIDENTIALISMpresidential executive and legislative are separate branches of the parliamentary regime only democratically legitimate institution is government that are elected and function on their ownsparliamentparliamentary the executive branch reflects the legislative branch tend to governments authority is completely dependent upon parliamentary lead to majority rule and powerful parties encourage coalitionspower confidencesharingmoderationlack the ability to compete seriously for power with the prime ministerpresidential regime executive with considerable constitutional powersrules of the gameelected by people for a fixed term and is independent of parliamentary consequential changevotes of confidencereflect goals as a society we ask ourselves what kind of society do we dependent of the cooperation of the legislative powerwantpresidents strong claim to democratic legitimacyvary among democraciesthrown into high relief when a majority of the legislature represents a political option opposed to the one the president representsREADINGSfixed term3
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