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Communist Manifesto.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Kenichi Ariga

Communist Manifesto Karl Marx Bourgeois – Pros and Cons • History of society = history of class struggle between oppressed and oppressor • The epoch of bourgeois possesses one distinct feature: class struggle simplified = two distinct groups • Positive: MiddleAges → feudal society (Bourgeois oppressed) → Capitalist Society = Bourgeois breakthrough, but Proletariat now oppressed o Made possible by modern industrialization = people focused more on technology and mass production = bourgeois fore runners in developing industries = became owners of means of production = broke feudal ties that bound man to ‘natural superior’ • Negative: o Bourgeois exploit workers + turn all transactions and occupations into money relations o In order to exist, constant change in production is necessary = constant change in relations of production = constant change of how society functions (mode) => instability, confusion, sense of loss of antiquity o Need to constantly expand markets = destruction of:  Local sufficiency: after people are satisfied with their own local goods, want imported goods to satisfy them  Independence: as raw materials are brought in from all over to be manufactured, then sent out = chain of events = dependence  Separate Country’s Image: Forces countries (like China) to participate in their mode of production – capitalism – or face extinction, thus creating a world based on their own image o Created large cities = made rural dependent on urban o Political Centralization: by collecting mass of jumbled population, centralizing means of production, and concentrating property in few hands 1 How the Bourgeois Falls • Weapons UsedAgainst Bourgeois: Forcing of industrialization → over-production → famine and devastation → bourgeois too narrow to compromise wealth = more destruction = bourgeois create weapon of their own destruction • Wielders of these Weapons: the proletariat o Are exploited by the bourgeois and are considered ‘commodities’ o Undergo forced specialization by division of labour = “appendages of the machine”  ↑ in speacialization = ↓ in wages  ↑ in burden of job = ↑ in hours or speed • The Middle Class: o Upper-middle class: landlord, shopkeeper, also exploit working class o Lower-middle class: disappear into the working class because their capital does not suffice to survive in the modern industrial world • Proletariat’s Stages of Development: o At first it in individual labourers → workers of a factory = go against means of production, not owners of production = to achieve rightful status  Destroy machinery, imported goods that compete with their labour etc. o Don’t fight enemies, but petty bourgeois o ↑ in industrial development = ↓ in wages = ↑ in exploitation of workers = ↑ in proletariat = creation of trade unions o Trade unions take time to spread – made possible my improved means of comm. – find base all around the world  At this point, bourgeois is fighting among itself (some want to ↑ production while other want to ↓) / battle with foreign bourgeois = some bourgeois join revolution 2 o RESULT: Class conscious of majority population (where as its was always a minority population in history) = overthrow bourgeois Distinction between Communists and Proletariats 1. Bring to the forefront the common interests of the proletariats independent of nationality 2. In the development of the proletariat, communists always represent interests of the movements as a whole 3. Therefore, communists are the most advanced people of the working-class population of their country that always push forward all others Aim of Communists 1. Immediate aim: same as proletariats = formation of the proletariat class + overthrow bourgeois + proletariat rule 2. TheoreticalAim: abolition of private property = bourgeois property ownership (which is the most complete form of exploitation) Bourgeois Society Communist Society Living labour is but a means to increase Accumulated labour = used to enrich society accumulated labour Past dominates present Present dominates past Capital is independent and has individuality No buying and selling = no free markets = no capital = no bourgeois freedom where only 1/10 Labo
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