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lec. jan. 24

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Sophia Moreau

DEMOCRATIZATION JAN 24 There have been 3 waves, where democratization increases, there is a peak, and then there is a decline in decmoracies, then there is another wave and so forth. The first wave was a long wave n lasted from 17 to 19 century. -democracy was achieved through long processes and was done through Britain and france. -in the firstwave the cause was modernizataion, demands for voice and political participation, urbanzaition, rise of middle class, etc. democracy came about as a result of revolution because people rose up from below and demanded representation 2 wave: After wwII, the 15 years or so thereafter, where countire became democratic through IMPOSITION where demoracy is imposed by the winning powers of wwii. -the bigger story is the story of decoloiniation, the formation of new countries, most new democracie that arised as a result of the second wave, became democratic through decolonization. So thats the 2 wave, and that also explains how and why it happens. The third wave, is different. -it begins in april 1974, when the portugese dictatorship was overthrown in a military coup. -the Spanish dictator Francisco fransco, held off the border to spain, and both coutnries were present in a catholic culture, and at that time catholisism wasnt supportive of democracy. The portugese argmed forces were split between conservative, moderat, and Marxist factions. The triump of democracy in Portugal was the beginning of a long wave of decmoratitization that lasted for 3 decades. The third wave of democratization began in april 1974, there were only 40 democacies at the time, most of them were industrialized countries. -since 1974, democracy which we are defining as a sytem of govnerment in which there are free and fair elections as well as frequesnt. While the Spanish transition to demoracy was increasing, military rule also began to unravel in latin America, the military withdrew in favour of elected military govnerments. -where military rule had been more economically successful, the transition was delayed, but it came to chile in 1989. By mid 1980s, so you got from late 1970-mid1980 signified democratization in latin America. In the mid 1980s demoratization spread through asia. By 1991, Pakistan bagladesh Nepal had all become democracies, as well as Thailand was going thrugh democratization. -by 1987, the third wave had spread to the point where 25 states everywhere in the world had become demcoracies, but that still left gaping holes in eastern Europe and Africa and middle east. -at this point democarttization was not yet global. -in 1989, with the fall of berlin wall and collapse of soviet union, marked an enourmous moment of democattic transition. By 1990, most states of easter Europe began to demcortizise. The collapse of communism and the end of the cold also brought changes to AFRICA, but why?
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