• Historical trajectory of European States (j. Bodin)
- Define Sovereign (supreme authority)
- Divine Right of Monarch/Natural
-Centralized , unitary polity
• Federalism as opposing principle of political organization (J. Altheusius)
- Covenant or Pact
-Faith and trust
-Unity in diversity : self -rule+shared rule
- Political Ideology
-Union of states
2) Analyse its value and influence in post-war Europe
- Influential movement (ideas)
- Ventotene Manifesto (1941)
-European Union of Federalists (1946)
The Hague Congress, (1948) (politics)
- Project of "European Union"
Churchill and the "united states of Europe"
• Unionists vs . Federalists - they are mostly english
- Intergovernmental cooperation
• Federalists 'failures'
-Council of Europe (The Hague Congress)