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POL224Y1 (89)

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Political Science
Rodney Haddow

Tues. Sept. 11, 2012 Lecture One: Intro First, the course structure and rules: - Make sure you have the syllabus; read it carefully. - Note my office hours and location; e-mail is also an excellent way of reaching me outside of class time. Usually respond quickly. - I need my time directly before class to organize my thoughts, PowerPoint, etc. But you can approach me with brief questions during the 10 minute break, and after class. I am quite willing to stay after 8 PM. - My role, and that of the TAs: This is a large class. I deliver the lectures, set assignments and oversee course. - TAs grade the assignments and conduct the tutorials. They are talented an knowledge - See division of labour between TAs and me on p. 2 re. e-mail and other con- tact, and advice on who you should approach about what. - Tutorial assignment: Be prepared for group meetings on Tuesday at 4, 5 or 8 PM. But there will be a couple at other times. How many of you cannot make it at the times I mentioned? - You will be able to sign up for tutorials next week. You may not be able to be in same group as your friends, or get your first preference. Tutorial assignment will be on- line, through course blackboard page, but it will be overseen to make sure that there is a balance among the TAs and the groups.At some point, you do have to fit in! - Groups will meet 5 times in first term, 6 times in second. Discussion format, and very valuable for that. - Attendance is mandatory, and worth 10% of final grade. You could get 0! - Tutorial topics will be circulated at end of this month, before meetings start. There will be a topic, and one or two assigned readings, from the syllabus. - Return to syllabus to discuss assignments; see these on top of p. 3: a short essay this term, due November 6th; a test during class on December 4th; longer research essay next term, and a final exam duringApril exam period. Note the grade distribution. - First term essay: I will have it prepared before next week’s class, and will post it on our blackboard page; hard copies at the next class. It will be short and based on course readings, with at most one additional one. - Incidentally, the blackboard page will of valuable material through the year; a few of the readings will be there, as will assignments, some helpful notes on various things, and replacement copies of the syllabus. - Readings: Middle of page 2. There is Brooks text; and there is a course pack for the first term. Brooks is not cheap, at about $90, but the course pack is around $35.Another course pack for the second term will be available in same place by December. There are a few readings listed as on-line reading, which you either get from the UTL system, or that will be available from the blackboard page, as indicated on the syllabus. - On average, about 2 readings per week. I suggest that you keep up with them. When tutorials start, some will be assigned specifically to them, which will help. But oth- ers won’t. - I will refer to them in class, but you should read them for material that I do not discuss; valuable on tests. - Plagiarism is an important issue. Read the statement on the syllabus. You have to know the rules. There is an elaborate process for catching it at U of T, and rule enforcement is increasingly severe, and it gets to be out of my hands and those of your TA! - Lateness: note that there is a 2% deduction (from 100) per each day late, M to F. This is a question of fairness to those who are not tardy, and to your TAs. I will ask them to get essays back to you no more than 3 weeks after the submission date, if your paper is sub- mitted on time. Extensions are available for medical reasons only, and there must be evidence to support this. - Class time rules: we start at 6:10, will go to around 7 PM, with a roughly 10 minute break, and then go to 8 PM. Tutorials also start 10 minutes after the top of the hour, and go until the end of that hour. - Walking in late is a major disturbance to your fellow students, as well as to me. Please be here when the class is supposed to begin. I do not want to have students coming in af- ter that time. I reserve the right to make it a rule that you MAY NOT enter after 6:10 if I notice a consistent pattern of violation of this norm. Please note that your commuting needs are not grounds for violating this rule. - Talking in class can be a major issue, and I ask you to not do so. There are no grounds for doing so, unless you are addressing a question to me, or we are discussing a point. This is even more of an issue for your fellow students than for me. If I notice it, I will point it out and ask you to stop; I could eventually ask you to leave. - PowerPoint will be used to present lectures, and I will make the slides available to you by Monday night, barring major happenstance. So you can download, and bring them to class on your laptop if you want. Or you might print them off, with a ‘notes’option on right side of page, to fill in at class. - I will e-mail you from PowerPoint when the slides are available, and about other things. - These slides are note a substitute for attending the lecture, and not under- standing the course material from the slides is not justification for doing poorly on tests. My making them available in this way probably does more good than harm, but there will be an element of the latter if you rely on them entirely! - Any questions about course structure and rules? Now, a few things about this course’s objectives: - What is this course about? What are we doing here? - Why Canada in comparison? We have courses on Canada (214), and on other countries and regions of the world at 2nd year level. - But there is no other course on the ‘comparative approach’ to political science, which is the disciplines key way of trying to shed light on individual counties and groups of them, i.e., by comparing them. - And Canada is highlighted as a care in this setting; the idea is that we discuss is institutions & political life in less detail than in 214, but that the we hope for particular insights about these by showing how they compare with those of other countries. - Focus for this comparison is mostly with other developed countries, or that now are. - Controversies in comparative field about this division within them are ongoing. We won’t overcome them here. - Balance of material: about 1/3 conceptual and historical context; about 1/3 specific discussions of other developed countries, and about 1/3, or maybe 40%, on Canadian pol- itics specifically. - Note sub-divisions in our discipline: we have theory (200), IR (208), Canadian (214), and comparative, usually divided between developing (201) and developed (here, and some area courses, which really are not quite the same.) - The idea is to discuss some tools for comparison, with particular reference to devel- oped countries, and then use this to cast a different light on Canadian than is often the case. - Canadian field is often seen as too descriptive, because of a lack of sufficient at- tention to concepts and comparisons. Whether or not this is justified, avoiding this is the point here. - It may also be said to be a particular focus in our department: ‘Comparative Turn’ book. - My own interest in Comparative Political Economy and welfare states. We look at this for about 3 weeks in second term. Yet Canada is my personal focus: applying com- parative PE tools to the study of Canada. - But also notice other elements of course, and how they fit in: discussion. Tues. Sept. 18, 2012 Lecture Two: What is a State -The definition of state it varies -The ideas come from people’s heads, and how we get those ideas out of them [A] It is where power is exercised -How much power is spread in the states. Luke’s definition is 3 parts: 1.1. 1stdimension: ‘a’ makes ‘b’ do something ‘b’ otherwise wouldn’t do -Decision-making; pluralism -Ex. a)State has past a legislation (people should be restricted to driving 50km where people are walking). B) The way society acts towards the legislation (the gov’t made rules because we should follow them because I could get pulled over and get a ticket) 1.2. 2nd dimension: ‘a’ creates / sustains structures that prevent ‘b’ contest- ing status quo -Non-decision-making; ‘elitism’ “a”t to suppress “b” -Ex. separate schools. This was put in the constitution and cannot be easily un- done 1.3. 3rd dimension: ‘a’ influences ‘b’s’ beliefs, goals -Structural power; e.g. Marx, some feminists -Ideology or prevailing order of the economy. -Marxist view would argue that power is of the ruling class -Feminist would argue an anti- patriarchal conception of power • Power types: 1. Pluralism = Dahl 2. Elitism = Bachrach / Baretz 3. Structural = Marx / feminisom [B] State power is backed by authority - = ‘right of command’ - Max Weber: Attributed on 3 grounds: [1]Charismatic: ‘magic’ = leadership qualities, larger than life ie. Hitler, Mussolini [2] Traditional: past practice ie. Monarchy [3] Rational-legal: accepted procedures ie. They are just the rules -Weber: [2] gradually yielded to [3]; – [1] is episodic …. & necessary! – Is democraticthtype? (Prof boring’s theory) ← [C] Authoritative state acts are legitimate - -Involves ‘consent’, not just ‘coercion’ (definition to the modern state / is available to it) [D] Poth. state is sovereign = ‘highest right of command’ - -‘Trumps’ other authorities - -E.G: laws re. family violence, corporate fraud, right to unionize - -Preth. state authority was contested - -‘Westphalian’ settlement ← [E] ‘Monopoly of Violence’ backs sovereignty (Weber) - -Coercion ‘reinforces’ consent [F] States have usually contiguous territory - -Territory = ‘container’ for sovereignty - -Beyond container: international relations … ‘lawless’? No … - -International law exists, but states bound only with their own consent, by treaty - Is this changing? EU; post 9/11 UN … ← ← Tues. Sept. 25, 2012 ← Lecture Three: The State ← [G] Government is only part of the state -Inbut its mainly the executing legislationf government which is not always applicable -Gov’t is a small part of the state - = executive (CDN: PM/cabinet) - State also includes bureaucracy, military, judiciary, legislature, state firms, schools … - Government may not always ‘command’ state - Military rule; bureaucratic power; theocracy - [H] Politics = use of power in context of the state: - use by the state within it; but also affecting it from outside, or against it! [I] Nation does not = state - Nation = ‘imagined community’ (Anderson) - Collectivity willed by its members: - Language, ethnicity, race, religion, history - [J] Nationalism: political claims on behalf of such a collectivity - May involve claim for sovereign nation-state [K] Nation-state: a state identified with a nation - Is this often justified? - Does it encourage prejudice? - What about ‘civic nationalism’? - Note alternative uses of ‘nation-state’ - [L] Canada: - Is ‘Canadian nationalism’ nonsense? - Is Canada a nation-state? -It can be dated to different time frames - Post-1970s/1980s global integration - States are becoming less sovereign in their own countries - Poses 4 challenges to sovereignty (Mann): - Economic: more trade, foreign investment, financial flows, MNCs - If wages are to high the factory will be moved somewhere else to save - Political: more ‘supra-state’ structures (IGOs), NATO - Military: 9/11, Iraq (over throw a regime); ‘unipolar’ world? States pressure beyond their borders. It becomes more of a reality, to project military power - Cultural: McDonalds, Starbucks. A crossing over phenomenon, cultural norms. Are views but now cultural views are coming through.pacity to keep old traditional - But also fundamentalism, anti-globalism! - Economic integration vs. cultural resistance - Jihad vs. McWorld (Barber) - Is Canadian sovereignty esp. vulnerable? - Yes, it always has been. Innis says Canada has never been sovereign because it serves economic pole from France, Britain and US. We always traded a lot and finical flows. For Canadians it is old because we have always traded. - Is sovereignty variable? - A post-Westphalian world? - ‘Globalization’= In the Canadian case we are a large country with a small popula- tion, subjected to pressure from international economic. Fragments from global and local currents of pressure. - States … “exercise sovereignty [highest authority, or right to exercise power legitimately] over a other organizations in a complex relation; are the site of politics; may be the site of nationalist aspirations; may be increasingly compromised by globalization, per- haps especially in Canada.” - What happens in and to this entity is the subject of political science ← ← ← Tues. Oct. 2, 2012 ← Lecture Four: The State, Economy and Civil Society ← [1] What’s outside the sovereign state? - Modernization entailed differentiation - 16ththcenturies - st, an autonomous capitalist economy Private and economic prevails, actors want to make a profit - site of production & distribution - 2nd, a civil society, also autonomous - site of voluntary action based on shared culture & values - Autonomous from what? - From direct control by the state ← ← (a) Economy (b) Production / distribution Governme nt (a) State (b) Sovereignty Political economy Key: This ‘sub-system’ … Is the ‘site’ of … (a) Civil Society (b) Culture / values [2] State & capitalist economy: - Capitalist economies emerge in Westhrthc.rope, 16 -18 - Why? China had better technology! - 3 factors: (i) Small landmass + - (ii) shared Christian culture, now … - (iii) now fragmented into multiple sovereign states (‘Westphalian’) - How can a state survive & grow, given anarchy of international relations? - War! (Tilly) - & geographic & cultural proximity encouraged & justified it. - Money comes from taxes & loans - More of this is available w/ ample markets, capitalists - Capitalism = private eco activity for profit - For-profit activities must be ‘induced’ - So states must induce them to pay taxes, or else they leave/melt away - How do you have/attract more capitalists than your enemies? - Protect private property: (North & Thomas) - State uses courts/law/police to foster trade, manufacturing, Secure property yields a rich & strong state … even if small! - Winning wars requires more arms & money - So tiny Netherlands liberated itself from giant, but often-bankrupt, Spain - Yet over time size mattered - Capitalist leadership went from Italian city-states to Netherlands to England to US - Dutchsto be ‘efficient’, but England was bigger, and - US bigger still … - lending - - [4] T.H. Marshall & Citizenship: - [3] is associated w/ spread of 3 notions of citizenship rights in 3 centuries - Reflects & reinforces differentiation (a) Civilthc. start with (i) property rights to protect capital - Spreads (ii) to speech, press, association - ‘Negative’ rights for (i) economy and (ii) civil society, against the state (b) Politicth.; demand for universal suffrage - ‘Positive’ right to participate in state - - (c) Socith.:ights in 20 - Basic income, education, health insurance … - ‘Positive’ right to ‘thrive’ - But (c) remains contested, variable - - Civil rights address needs of capitalists - But also go beyond that … -Political & social rights reflect demands of majority, non-privileged … 99%? -Do these conflict? Yes! -Comparative political economy studies variable outcomes within states - - - - - - Marshall’s 3 Types of ‘Citizenship Right’ Type ‘Started’ Examples Civil 18thc.(i) Eco: Property, contract [Negative: (ii) Non-eco: speech, press, ‘from’] Political 19thc. Vote, hold office [Positive: ‘to participate’] Social 20thc. Education, income security, [Positive: ‘to social services thrive’] ← ← ← [4] Europe & Rest of the World - State/economy/civil society ‘trinity’ emerged in W Europe, N. America, etc., by 2th. - Did it then become the ‘model’ for everybody else? (Held, pp. 19-22) - If so, was this good? Africa? - & has East Asia adopted the model, or built its own in response? ← ← ← Tues. Oct. 9, 2012 ← Lecture 5: Political Culture - ‘What can be said’ in civil society about politics -It is a sub field -Active on the state by the state -What can be said as filmilar to your fellow citizens - Preoccupation of much P.C. scholarship: - Implications of beliefs/values for democracy - -Working rule - Let’s examine 3 waves of this preoccupation: - [1] Where can democracy exist? - 1950s– 60s origins; cold war context - Some states are democratic, others not; why? (a) Psychology: Latter have more authoritarian personalities: (those Germans ...) - But (i) Adorno’s ‘F scale’ found them in US too (1950) ! - (ii) So did Milgram (1961) - Biased (i)? Unethical (ii)? Anyway, abandoned (b) Maybe the key is social norms re. politics: - vanvey-based The Civic Culture by Almond & Verba (1963): See Khan & McNi- - Respondents in 5 countries were parochial, subject or participant ... - ... depending on mix of efficacy, trust & competence survey scores - US had most ‘modern’ mix; many participants - Moderately-active citizens: reasonably informed & voting - Very influential! But criticized ... - (i) Reflects democratic elitist bias - (ii) How do we explain declining efficacy, trust ... & voting? ‘De-modernization’? {see sec. [2]} - ON (prov.) elections: 1990: 63.3%; 2007: 52.8%; 2011: 49.2% (c) Maybe democracy doesn’t need the right p.c., but the right economics: - Lipset: States become democratic as they become wealthy (1959) - too.oglu & Robinson: Not only that! Transition requires low/moderate inequality (d) But ‘cultural’ approach to democracy persists: - Huntington, Clash of Civilizations (1998) and Who Are We? (2005) [2] Are Democracies Sick? (a) One concern is cleavages – ethnicity, language, religion, region, etc. - May fragment / destabilize a state - In Canada or Ontario in 2012 ... ? - But less if cleavages are cross-cutting (Rokkan) (b) Another concern: declining social capital - See Putnam: Americans were active - Possessed social capital, which active & healthy democracy requires - But then it declined - Why …? Other reasons? - Critique 1: Democratic elitist, again … - Critique 2: Maybe participation has moved ... - From parties, voting, formal groups to ... ? - [3] Have Democracies Changed? - ‘Modern’ era meant security & economic values - ‘left’: economic equality; positive rights - ‘right’: economic freedom; negative rights - See Inglehart: 1960s affluence yields ‘post-materialism’ - Focus shifts to personal ‘well being’ - Implications for politics? - Institutions less legitimate; authority challenged - Down: leaders, deference; Up: activism, life style - Less voting, lobbying; more NSM-led protests, boycotts, etc. - Survival vs. Well-Being ity hor aut l ona rati r- ula sec vs. l ona diti Tra - Contributes to identity politics - My ‘self’ is … female, gay, aboriginal, green … - So: new ideologies: feminism, environmentalism - But also evokes ‘neo-conservative’ ‘backlash’ ! - values’ …left-right spectrum now divides ‘identity pluralism’ from ‘traditional - Superimposed on (not replacing) material divide: - (post-material)nomy (material/modern) now mixes with conflict on civil society - Richer countries are more post-material -But notice N. America / Europe difference -What explains that? - ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← Oct. 15, 2012 ← Lecture Six: Canadian Political Culture ← - Do Canadians think (politically) like ... our neighbours to the south -America - Historical/qualitative views; also survey /quantitative evidence - [1] Ideologies in Developed Democracies - Liberalism: ideology of European differentiation - Individuals should have equal opportunity to pursue their interests, using reason - Conservative response favoured community, steered by hierarchies to protect tradi- tion ← - & socialists also champion community (workers) who use reason for equality of condition ← Individual / Equality / hi-Reason / tra- community erarchy dition Liberalism Individual portunity)op- vidual)(indi- Conser- Community Hierarchy Tradition vatism Survival vs. Well-Being Socialism Community Equality (con-Reason (of workers) dition) (state/ (collective) [2] Hartz’s fragment thesis, & Canada - Hartz: ‘New societies’get part of p.c. of ‘mother country’, that of settlers - US: Puritans:All equal and alone before God, so liberal - Canada: - MacRae: Quebec was Catholic: hierarchical community of faith; so conservative - What about Quiet Revolution (1960s)...? - English Canada like US, so liberal - ‘Two Solitudes’... - - Horowitz: Yes, English Canada shaped by US, so predominantly ... but UEL after Revolution also brought strain of conservatism - & this provided components for a strain of socialism - communitye more state intervention (taxing /spending), reflecting - Health care, lower inequality, CBC, etc. - & lower crime, divorce (?), reflecting hierarchy - ‘Peace, Order & Good Gov’ vs. ‘Life, Liberty & Pursuit of Happiness’ - Evidence? Below, section [4] - [3] But ideologies change ... - ... & differently, regarding economy, civil society - Latth: Reform liberalism: - State must intervene in economy: protect vulnerable individuals, regulate: social rights - gay rights ...ssues – civil society – state should respect individual choice; abortion, - In lth, neo-conservative response: - State should keep taxes & spending low - ... to protect negative rights in economy - [4] What ‘evidence’ is there? - Surveys, but also what governments do ... - One view: - Both US & Canadian p.c. reflect these 2 currents - & overall differences may be modest - But reform lib stronger here, neo-con in US: Economy: - CDN govs spend somewhat more than US ones, overall & on social transfers. - Result? Moderately lower inequality & poverty - Much larger differences with Europe ... Canada United States revenues/GDP 33% 28% Social 11.1% 7.7% benefits/GDP Gini coefficient .318 .372 (inequality, Poverty 13%
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