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Psychology Winter Session Jan 29.docx

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Dan Dolderman

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Psychology Winter Session January 29 2013 Bottom up processing and Top down processing The mind is the brain does  The fact that our experience of the world relies intimately on the brain is shown in the bizarre perceptual experiences of patients with certain kinds of neurological damage or dysfunction. Ex. Oliver Sacks, The man who mistook his wife for a hat The spilt brain  The two hemispheres of the brain are actually two mini-brains connected by a bundle of fibers, the corpus callosum o for several decades until the 1960s, it was not uncommon to cut the corpus callosum to attempt to help people with epilepsy o The brain is a collection of brains that evolved over evolutionary time.  brain is not a single thing but a inter connected thing. For example, the hemispheres are connected in the brain. Brain is a collection of brains which evolved through time. Different parts of the brain functioning different things. o  The left hemisphere deals with logic and thinking, also language production, the right hemisphere deals with emotion and spatial processing.  Left communicates with right, right communicates with the left side of the body  Left eye -> right brain, Right eye -> left brain  Corpus callosum transfer communication with both sides of the brain  The left brain is the “story teller”  Interdependence of cognition and emotion  Localization of function – when you try to do something, it require many parts of the brain to work together Where are you?  We are nowhere. It is the physical and sociocultural environments surrounding you, which continually create and reinforce patterns in your brain  AND within the brain, YOU arise because of the interconnectedness of many function subsystems. Just to think of the profound changes that happen when you know out a specific part. Neurological-perceptual problems  Blindsight o Spatial relationship in the back of your head, your visual field is represented in the back of your head. You lose part of your visual field if you damage the back of your head. Partial blindness.  Blindsight- people have some part of their visions damaged . Creates a hole. Primary visual system is knocked out o o 40+ different areas work to help give you vision in your brain o Vision is not a unitary ability  Phineas Gage o 1800s working on the railway, using dynamite, placing a charge exploding and shoots through his head. Before the accident he was the most efficient and capable foreman. Post-accident, he is fitful, indulging in the grossest of profanity, and IE, became a jerk.  The prefrontal cortex – the center of rationality o What makes us fundamentally human, deals with higher cognitive abilities. Integration of emotion and rationality. o Integrate – interdependent. o Considerable agreement in the literature of a functional lobe dissociation o Dorsal (towards the top of the brain) = Cognitive (reason, rationality.) o Ventral (lower down) = Affective*  Cognitive (Dorsal) o Maintaining attention o Mental flexibility o Abstract thinking o Feedback utilization o Inhibition of response  Affective o Control of behavior o Processing the reward and emotion o Social inhibition (impulse control) o Primary reinforces (food, sex, social affiliation) o If this area is damage  Social indiscriminate  Socially isolated  Difficulty initiating tasks  Impaired parenting  Blunted emotions  hyper sexuality  Uncreative  Low motivation Emotion and Cognition  Emotion influences everyday “rational” decision making  Emotion and cognition are not separate  Emotional evaluation guides reasoning o Carbon tax vs. carbon offset  “Gut feelings”  Emotional and reason are separable Somatic Marker Hypothesis  Sensory information activates the VPFC  Causes autonomic arousal  Creates non-conscious bias that serves to facilitate cognitive (conscious) evaluation of the situation. Bechara et al. (1997)  OFC is important for emotional responding  Are emotional responses necessary for appropriate decision making?  Gambling task that simulates real life decision making.  Controlled results o Chose advantageously before they realized which strategy was best o Developed anticipatory SCR even before they figured out the strategy  VMPFC patien
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