Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSG (50,000)
PSY (4,000)
PSY100H1 (1,000)
Lecture

PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Motherhouse, Hula Hoop, Extraversion And Introversion


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 26 pages of the document.
You made your children what they are… these children that come at you with knives, they are your children. You taught them. I didn't teach them.
Charles Manson
Emotions & Cognition are interwoven
Humans - rational, self interested calculators of utility
This view has been shattered by the past few decades of social science and biological research
We know this but we often pretend it is not the case and believe that people are rational
To get people to agree - we have to convince them through rational argument of our perspective
In reality, the debate is usually won emotionally, not "rationally", UNCONSCIOUSLY, not consciously
Why should you take the stairs instead of the elevator; energy and climate vs calories
-
This works because it shifts the emotional tone, which then shift thinking patterns to be consistent with that tone
Eg. Paying more for airplane tickets
"carbon offset" -- generating reasons why it's a good idea -> 65% of Republicans in favour
-
"carbon tax" - generating reasons why it's a bad idea -> 27% of Republicans in favour
-
Tax --> shifting emotions (negative)
Eg. Why are we fighting a "war on terror"
Because we're really in war?
-
The cognitive emotional consequences of the word "war" are to activate fear, obedience, patriotism, the desire for protection and strong leadership,
the feeling of moral justification/superiority
-
Because of our thoughts are built on past associative networks, "adult" complex cognition is a process of creating variants o n early metaphors. Eg.
Family
-
What's your model of the family?
-
A patriarchal, strong daddy model, based on discipline, obedience, a person's worth being based on merit, self reliance, the belief that individuals are
self interested units primarily interested in themselves; an ethic of justice and belief in logic as the basis of rational de cision making
-
Connects directly to support for more conservative policies, strong military and police, few social programs, privatized reso urces, aggressive foreign
policy stances, "tax relief" rhetoric coupled with corporate empowerment
-
A nurturant, egalitarian model, based on communication, respect and trust, love, boundaries for behaviour based on empathy fo r others, the belief
that people are intrinsically social, emotional creatures; an ethic of "care" and belief in interdependence as the basis of r ationality
-
Connects directly to support for more progressive policies, focus on collaboration and power sharing, community and individua l empowerment, strong
social safety net, publicly owned resources, "dove" foreign policy stances and investment in root cause solutions such as pov erty alleviation, health
care and food security, taxes are not rhetorically described as "bad" but rather seen as a basic good corporate regulation so as to keep resources in the
hands of "the people" rather than corporate interests
-
The consequences?
A cognitive science analysis reveals that much of today's politics are not really about the surface details of issues being discussed, but that the
discussions themselves are merely variations on underlying metaphoric themes, themes that are based on our early associative networks, and that are
interwoven deeply into our emotional systems
-
Cognitive heuristics can bias us in many ways..
Availability heuristic
-
The tendency to judge the probability of an event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances
-
Eg. Following 911, most people drove, overestimating their odds of dying in a plane crash even though there are risks driving cars
-
As a result, hundreds of extra people died in car creases .. (353 in 3 months following 9/11)
-
What's scarier, smoking or flying?
Could you imagine a smoker, afraid to fly?
Smoking takes, on av, 5 years off your life (50% chance of early death due to smoking…)
Flying takes, on average, about ONE day off your life (FAR less than 1% chance of early death)
Focusing attention on highly vivid examples ..
Imagine a tsunami, killing 300 000 people
-
Remember the aid pouring out?
-
A "silent tsunami" or 2-3 Haitian earthquakes, of poverty-related malaria kills that many children every couple of months
-
No aid; a lot of aid when attention is caught
-
Imagine a 747 crashing, killing everyone on board
-
We emotionally respond
Mislead by availability
We often use the availability heuristic to our own detriment, without being aware of it!
Eg. Mood congruent processing (eg. Interpretation, attributions, memories) -> positive vs negative information being differentially accessible
Eg. Depression - remembering bad things - increased accessibility for those memories - feeling that wow, you really are a big loser, because look at
how easy it is to come up with all sorts of examples!
The availability heuristic can explain many other phenomena:
e.g. egocentric biases (how much housework do you do? Ask them individually and when adding the percentage, it's over 100)
Chapter 9 ...
Audio recording started: 11:16 AM October-26-10
Chapter 10 - Emotions
October-26-10
11:10 AM
New Section 2 Page 1

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Focusing attention on highly vivid examples ..
Imagine a tsunami, killing 300 000 people
-
Remember the aid pouring out?
-
A "silent tsunami" or 2-3 Haitian earthquakes, of poverty-related malaria kills that many children every couple of months
-
No aid; a lot of aid when attention is caught
-
Imagine a 747 crashing, killing everyone on board
-
We emotionally respond
Mislead by availability
We often use the availability heuristic to our own detriment, without being aware of it!
Eg. Mood congruent processing (eg. Interpretation, attributions, memories) -> positive vs negative information being differentially accessible
Eg. Depression - remembering bad things - increased accessibility for those memories - feeling that wow, you really are a big loser, because look at
how easy it is to come up with all sorts of examples!
The availability heuristic can explain many other phenomena:
e.g. egocentric biases (how much housework do you do? Ask them individually and when adding the percentage, it's over 100)
New Section 2 Page 2

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

How can we understand emoitions?
Emotions - biological system
BAS - behaviour activation system
BIS - behaviour inhibition system
They are separate systems: positive and negative but they are connected
New Section 2 Page 3
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version