PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Uch, Amygdala, Motivation

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
One of the best developed literatures in psych has to do with how people motivate themselves and are motivated by others, with the roles that
motivational structures, like goals, play in determining our behaviours, thoughts, emotions, health
And despite the early dominance of behaviourist approaches, psychologists now recognize the intimate role that top down processes play in
determining how our motivational systems functions
"remember kid, it's not whether you win or lose. But how much they pay you for the game"
Old man story - overjustification effect
1973 - markers + good player award
The continuum of motivation
Intrinsic motivations
Amotivation - not self-determined
external regulation
Identified/integrated regulation - personal valuation and importance, integration with values, life goals, self-concept etc
Intrinsic regulation - doing for the sake of doing; engagement, flow, enjoyment, growth, challenge etc
Intrinsic motivation - self-determined
More right, more motivated you are
The source of one's motivations
Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic: "the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges , to extend and exercise one's capacities, to explore and to learn"
Doing for the sake of DOING
Or for the sake of MEANING
Intrinsic motivation is self-directed and self sustaining -> greater persistence and more disciplined goal pursuit
If you want high performance, high creativity, strong leadership, a learning organization open to failure, and ultimately, happy employees who will
take your business to the next level: then you want to work with intrinsic motivation
Healthy development - self determination theory
Eg. Think back to high school. Did you go to class and engage in extracurricular activities after school, or did you skip class to play cards and go
More generally, why do some people make it through their teenage years with vitality, hope and a general sense that their lives are good and they
can pursue meaningful goals, whereas others fall off the tracks?
Autonomy: family supports independence, self-direction, challenging and fun intrinsic pursuits
Relatedness: healthy peer context, mentors, family support, social skills, modeling
Competence: goal oriented, mastery oriented (feels good to master something), growth mindset, success experiences and feedback, PRACTICE
Healthy development
Using "experience sampling methods" teens who thrive were found to spend a much higher proportion of time in Flow activities (intrinsic interest,
high degree of challenge, intense concentration, absorption in the moment) and less on unstructured time (TV time, bumming around)
Conclusion: those who thrive are those who ENGAGE themselves in activities that develop their talents
Key factor: "enjoyment" (not pleasure but more like effortful, absorbed engagement)
Staying attuned to one's experience of enjoyment depends on the appropriate developmental context (supporting autonomy, competence,
relatedness, meaning etc)
Principle of insufficient justification
Stronger punishment has less effect, whereas weaker punishment
You want to use extrinsic motivators minimally, keeping intrinsic motivations intact
Chase after money and security and your heart will never unclench
Care about other people's approval and you will be their prisoner
Do you work, then step back the only path to serenity
Lao Tzu
In general, people who are happy and fulfilled tend fairly strongly to be:
Less self focused, defensive, judgemental, prejudiced, competitive
Less hostile, abusive, violent
Less vulnerable to disease and sickness
More emotionally healthy, loving, forgiving, trusting, grateful, empathetic, altruistic, compassionate, egalitarian, collaborative, cooperative
More decisive, goal oriented, growth-focused
More creative, open minded
More sociable helpful
More un to be around
Longer-living (by a lot)
11:15 AM
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