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PSY100H1 Study Guide - Mindset, Paraplegia, Environmentalism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
doldeman

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Topic 7: Motivation, Emotion, Health & well-being
Motivation
-Rewards and punishments
-People may sacrifice some of their morals for money
-Won’t be performing properly if you are not motivated
-Things such as money, sex as motivators can work in the short-run, but not really in the long
run
Goals and Motivation
-One of the best-developed literatures in psychology has to do with how people motivate
themselves and are motivated by others, with the roles that motivational structures, like
goals, play in determining our behaviours, thoughts, emotions, health, etc
-And despite the earl dominance of behaviourist approaches, psychologists how recognize the
intimate role that top-down process (i.e. meaning, construal, interpretation), play in
determination how our motivational systems function
I.e. beating kids for bad behaviour will may not punish the behaviour, the children will
try to avoid getting caught
Objective incentive is better than subjective behaviour
I.e. playing sports some pay for passion others for pay checks
What to conclude after this brief introduction to the field of psychology?
We have some (new?) insight into who we are:
A dynamic process of communication and interaction with others.
Who we are is largely what we practice.
Thus, the individual can change themselves, and their culture, by changing these
processes of communication.
Motivation Example
An old man lived alone on a street where boys played noisily every afternoon. The din
annoyed him, so one day he called the boys to his door. He told them he loved the cheerful
sound of children’s voices and promised them each 50 cents if they would return the next
day. Next afternoon the youngsters raced back and played more lustily than ever. The old
man paid them and promised another reward the next day. Again they returned, whooping it
up, and the man again paid them; this time 25 cents. The following day they got only 15
cents, and the man explained that his meagre resources were being exhausted. “Please,
though, would you come to play for 10 cents tomorrow?” The disappointed boys told the man
they would not be back. It wasn’t worth the effort, they said, to play all afternoon at his house
for only 10 cents.
Giving rewards for something people will doyou will take away that intrinsic
motivation
Some meanings change, motivation change (overjustification effect)
Old man paying 15 cents for kids to play at his house, decreases to 10 cents kids lose
interest
Overjustification Effect
-1973 – markers + good player award
The continuum of Motivation
-Self-determined vs. not self-determined
-External regulation: rewards, punishments, authority command, social pressure, etc, every
strong in the short-term, but very weak in the long term
-Introjected regulation: partial internalization of reward/punishment, contingent self-
esteem, ego-involvement

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-Identified regulation and integrated regulation: personal valuation and importance,
integration with values, life goals, self-concept, etc, every sustainable, doesn’t really need any
external export
-Intrinsic regulation (intrinsic motivation): doing for the sake of doing, engagement, flow,
enjoyment, growth, challenge, etc
The source of one’s motivations
-Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation
-Intrinsic motivation: the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and
exercise one’s capacities, to explore and to learn
-Doing for the sake of doing
-OR for the sake of meaning (integrity, values, purpose)
-Intrinsic motivation is self-directed and self-sustaininggreater persistence and more
disciplined
-If you want high-performance, higher-creativity and ultimately happy employees who will
take your business to the next level: then you want to work with intrinsic motivation
Healthy Development
(See Csikzentmihalyi & Flow; Ryan & Deci & Self-determination Theory)
E.g., think back to high school. Did you go to class & engage in extracurricular
activities after school, or did you skip class to play cards & go drinking?
More generally, why do some people make it through their teenage years with vitality,
hope, and a general sense that their lives are good and they can pursue meaningful
goals, whereas others fall off the tracks?
Autonomy: family supports independence, self-direction, challenging, and fun intrinsic
pursuits
Relatedness: healthy peer context, mentors, family support, social skills, modeling
Competence: goal oriented, mastery oriented, growth mindset, success experiences and
feedback, practice, more interpersonally superior
-Consequences? Using experience sampling methods teens who thrive were found to spend a
much higher proportion of time in Flow activities (i.e. intrinsic interest, high defences of
challenge, intense concentration, absorption in the moment) and less on unstructured time
(TV time, bumming around)
-Conclusion? Those who thrive are those who engage themselves in activities that develop
their talents
-Key factor? Enjoyment (this is not pleasure but more like effortful, absorbed engagement
-staying attuned to one’s experience of enjoyment depends on the appropriate developmental
context, (i.e. supporting autonomy, competence, relatedness, meaning, etc)
-Unfortunately, may adults who have not been able to pursue a vocation that they enjoy will
reluctant to accept this general conclusion, they will tend to see interest and effort and play
and work, as separate realms because that is how they normally experience them

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-Yet most people remember a time, no matter who brief, when they were slept along by a
sense of effortless control, clarity and concentration on an enjoyable challenge. IT may have
happened on the athletic field, etc
Principle of Insufficient Justification
-How rewards have affected people’s meanings
-The stronger punishment is less effective, weak punishment worked, i.e. robot toy
-When people go through an experiment that was very boring, if they were paid $20 to lie and
tell others it was fun, people tend to lie, if you are only paid a $1, people have more of a
dilemma, the people who received the $20 may begin to think the $20 was fun
-Therefore, you want to use extrinsic motivators at a minimal, keeping intrinsic motivations
intact
-Degree of punishment
Sometimes, I and E work in concert
-Generally, people believe that I and E systems always work in concert. This is why we
motivate kids by giving them gold stars, bribing them with candy, threatening them with
punishments, etc
But sometimes, I & E work against each other
(Usually, we worry about E -I)
-E.g., you love football (I), but after years of focusing on winning the next “big game,” trying
hard to make the cut, getting berated by your coach when you screw up OR praised by your
coach when you perform well.......you start finding football less FUN and decide that, you
know, World of Warcraft looks like a pretty good time
-E.g., you love football (I), and even though your team is terrible and you lose every game (E),
you have so much fun playing that your motivation doesn’t fade, or even increases over time!
This is why it is dangerous to over-rely on extrinsic motivators when trying to
change people’s behaviour...
-Do the minimal amount of punishment
-E.g., excessively punishing children motivating them to not get caught! But it does
nothing to diminish their inherent interest in the forbidden activity.
-E.g., Mom’s soap bar
A variety of factors determine whether E will undermine I
-The overarching principle is whether or not the person comes to ATTRIBUTE their behaviour
to their own innate motives (e.g., fun, meaning, long-term goal pursuit, value congruence,
etc.), or to the achievement of some reward or specific outcome ($$$, status, praise, pride,
doing better than their friends, etc.)
-Easier to reject the standards of your society if your society has rejected you, Native children
-Most important is the why step
-Want science to be value free
-In the short term lots of things makes us happy
-Tested using interventions, they were told in various ways they will be happy next week,
everyone had the same expectancy, measured the outcomes, found that it didn’t matter what
they told people, one week later, everybody was happy, almost equally so
-Find signature/character strengths that could make us happy
-What makes us happy is not always healthy
-Bullies are insecure
-Money buys happiness to some degree
-Believing in what you are doing, your meaning system, helping people can make people
happy
-Time course of what makes people happy isn’t all the same
-The more we focus on the life of the rich and happy, the less happy we will become
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