Class Notes (891,281)
CA (533,129)
UTSG (45,589)
PSY (3,630)
PSY100H1 (1,667)
Lecture 6

PSY100H1 Lecture 6: Research Methods

9 Pages
55 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 9 pages of the document.
lResearch Methods
How Do We Find Things Out?
Basically how do we decide what we believe vs. What we don’t believe?
4 ways of knowing about the world:
Intuition (having a gut feeling about something)
Logic (reasoning)
Authority (is the info coming from someone you trust)
Observation (use science and collect data)
What is Science?
Science is not defined by what it studies but by how it is studied
Four Canons of Science:
Determinism: The universe is orderly all events have meaningful causes or
reasons why they happen
Theories: statements about the causal relation between two or more
variables
Variables: a condition that changes or has different values
Empiricism: The best way of figuring out principles is by collecting data or
making observations
Parsimony: Researchers should explain their observations in the simplest method
when there are two equally good theories, we should prefer the simpler one (aka
Occam’s Razor)
Testability: these theories should be testable
Falsifiability it should be possible to make an observation that would
show the hypothesis or theory to be false
Operational Definitions an observable event or condition that any other
researcher should be able to independently measure/test. Sometimes
variables are not well-defined and cannot be directly observed
Constructs: Characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are
useful for describing and explaining behaviour
Operational Definitions: Some variables are not well-defined and cannot be directly observed
Intoxication:
Physiological Measure (blood test)
Behavioural Measure (walking in a straight line)
Self-Reported Measure (simply asking the person how intoxicated they are)
Scientific Inquiry:
It is basically finding answers to empirical questions answer questions such
as…WHAT happens, WHEN it happens, what CAUSES it and WHY
Confidence in scientific findings increases as research outcomes are replicated
Theory a good theory produces a wide variety of testable results
Serendipity: when researchers unexpectedly discover something important
Hypothesis prediction based on the theory
Research Test of the hypothesis
Scientific Method:
Theory, Hypothesis, Research
Theory: Explanation based on observations a good theory produces a wide variety of
testable results
o Serendipity when researchers unexpectedly discover something important
Hypothesis: Predictions based on the theory
Research: Test of the hypothesis; yields data, which either:
o Supports the theory:
o Refute or fails to support the theory: which you either discard or revise (then test
your revised theory)
A single study, even a BRILLIANT single study does not tell you much on its own
o In general, confidence in scientific findings increases when research outcomes are
replicated
H - Hypothesize
O - Operationalize
M - Measure
E - Evaluate
R Replicate/ Revise/ Report
Types of Research:
What differentiates the level of control of the experimenter in the variables in the study
Different types of claims based on the levels of influence the experimenter applied
Basically how much control the researcher has over the variables
Researchers must define variables in precise ways, they do this by using operational
definitions
Types:
Descriptive/Observational
Longitudinal & Cross-sectional
Correlational
Experimental
Descriptive Research:
Involves observing and classifying behaviour
This type of study is usually the first step in a line of research or it is done as part of a
larger research project
Three Types:
o Naturalistic Observation: Passive observation when observers do not change or
alter ongoing behaviour
o Participant Observation: Active observation when the researcher is actively
involved in the study problem with this is that the presence of an observer can
change the behaviour of the participant
o Laboratory Observation: observations that are systematic are made within a lab
instead of in the “real world”
Descriptive Research Threats:
o Observer Bias errors in the observation occur because an observer’s
expectations cultural norms
o Reactivity: Experimenter Expectancy Effect actual change in behaviour of the
people or animals (ex: Students were told that their group of rats were genetically
superior than normal rats so they treated the rats differently)
To protect against this, it is best if the person running the study (aka the
student) is unaware of the hypothesis of the study (that these rats are
genetically smarter)
o Reactivity: The Hawthorne effect if you know that you are being observed,
you will most likely alter your behaviour
Sex Cures Migraines: was not a very controlled study and there were way too many variables
and unanswered questions this will help design more controlled research
Longitudinal Studies: Developmental study which goes on for prolonged periods of time
measuring the changes that occur in the same people over time. Advantage is that you can assess
how age effects results. Disadvantage is that people may not do the experiment for that long.
Cross-Sectional Studies: observing developmental changes that occur in different types of groups
at the same time. Ad faster; dis a lot of unidentified variables
Some Problems with Self-Report:
Self-report methods: ppl are asked to provide information about themselves
o Ex: 800 participants from the British Isles and Sub-Saharan Africa complete a
survey of 41 body parts, each rated for erogenous intensity
Self-report bias:

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
lResearch Methods How Do We Find Things Out? Basically how do we decide what we believe vs. What we dont believe? 4 ways of knowing about the world: Intuition (having a gut feeling about something) Logic (reasoning) Authority (is the info coming from someone you trust) Observation (use science and collect data) What is Science? Science is not defined by what it studies but by how it is studied Four Canons of Science: Determinism: The universe is orderly all events have meaningful causes or reasons why they happen Theories: statements about the causal relation between two or more variables Variables: a condition that changes or has different values Empiricism: The best way of figuring out principles is by collecting data or making observations Parsimony: Researchers should explain their observations in the simplest method when there are two equally good theories, we should prefer the simpler one (aka Occams Razor) Testability: these theories should be testable Falsifiability it should be possible to make an observation that would show the hypothesis or theory to be false Operational Definitions an observable event or condition that any other researcher should be able to independently measuretest. Sometimes variables are not welldefined and cannot be directly observed Constructs: Characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behaviour Operational Definitions: Some variables are not welldefined and cannot be directly observed Intoxication: Physiological Measure (blood test) Behavioural Measure (walking in a straight line) SelfReported Measure (simply asking the person how intoxicated they are) Scientific Inquiry:
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit