lecture notes

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13 Dec 2010
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PSY 100
04/01/10
Psychology
www.psych.utoronto.ca/psy100dax
2nd Canadian edition
psych100e.psych.utoronto.ca
Understanding of the concepts. Researchers names and dates are
not important.
Sign up for experiment. 4 credits. If you say youll show up and you
dont, youll lose a point and you have to do two experiments to get
a point.
Read ch.2 for next class.
How to do well in this course: active reader, note-taker,
participant. Multiple choice questions are mostly based on text
book.
Homework on the website.
No tutorials. No essays.
Wilhelm Wundt (1870s) combines philosophy and physiology.
Psychology helps problem solving in general.
What is psychology?
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It is the scientific study of behavior. IF we use empirical use of
analogy, then its science. If youre studying Freud, its not science.
Because its not scientific. Because hypotheses are not testable.
Doesnt mean they’re wrong we just dont know if they’re right or
wrong. Its theoretical not scientific. What makes it scientific?
Importance of causal inferences. Cause and effect. Area of genetics
and neuroscience = scientific. In its original sense of psychology.
Clinical and experimental are
Scientific method. Different from other programs.
Psychology: anything that an animal or human does, feels, or
thinks. Behavior. Everything. Based on empirical research.
Economics, business, marketing, advertising, engineering, human
factors, etc. Psychology is almost in everything. Use psychology
everywhere. Ex. To be a better professor, better husband, dad, etc.
Humans are animals more than anything else. We share much
more in common than we have difference to animals, in a scientific
view. Psychology applies just about to every area. Ex. How to read
better, how to do the test better, how to take better notes, etc.
In order to create new behaviors, especially to solve problems, you
have to have plans or information. Without the information, youre
lost no matter how much motivation you have. You have to be able
to evaluate evidence. Have critical thinking. Much of the
information that is given to us are not true. Ex. Alcohol prevents
heart disease: this is not true. In fact, its not alcohol but its red
wine that somehow seems to prevent heart disease. Its not even
red wine, its red fruit that does. BE SKEPTICAL. You have to
look for things that look scientific.
Major perspectives
biological
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psychoanalytic
behavioral
humanistic
cognitive
evolutionary
biological perspective follows medical areas. Absolutely necessary
but not sufficient. We have to include other areas such as
psychoanalytic, behavioral, etc. Everything is interconnected.
All diseases are connected to psychology, biological,etc.
Psychoanalytic: Freud. He was a genius 100 years ago. We have
moved ahead of time. Greatly contributed to the idea of
unconsciousness.
Freud : grandfather of the psychotherapy. People talked to him
and he cured people when other doctors could not cure them.
Simply by changing the people think, they could cure depressions,
etc.
- Unconscious: our awareness is below our consciousness. We dont
realize we are doing things. This is the most influential things for
animals and humans, and especially for animals because they
response to environments.
Behavioral perspective: it should only be about observing
behaviors. Behaviorists said they need to be able to measure
things. All they had to do was to look at animals. Classical,
operant conditioning, etc. These were studied by this perspective.
Anxieties, etc. understanding of how we learn, how we react to
phobic reactions. Operant conditioning will contribute greatly to
our life in learning. It takes place below our awareness. These
things take place in unconscious level. We have to keep in mind
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