PSY100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Behaviorism, Classical Conditioning, Organism

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4 Aug 2016
School
Department
Course
Professor
Learning
Early+1900s:+a+resistance+to+the+dominant+paradigms+in+psychology+of+the+day:+
introspections+&+Freudian+psychoanalysis
Psychologists+started+to+try+to+make+psychology+more+scientific,+experimental.+They+
began+to+focus+only+on+observable+aspects+of+human+experience+focus+on+behavior
Pavlov's+dog:+Measure+anticipation
Higher-order+conditioning
A+neutral+stimulus+can+become+a+conditioned+stimulus+by+being+paired+with+an+already+
established+conditional+stimulus
John+B.+Watson
"Psychology+as+the+behaviorist+view+it+is+a+purely+objective+natural+science.+Its+
theoretical+goal+is+the+prediction+and+control+of+behavior.+Introspection+forms+no+
essential+part+of+its+methods"
"The+behaviorist,+in+his+attempts+to+get+a+unitary+scheme+of+animal+response,+
recognizes+no+dividing+line+between+man+and+brute."
The+behavior+of+man,+with+all+of+its+refinement+and+complexity+forms+only+a+part+of+the+
behaviorists
Watson+&+the+Rise+of+Behaviorism
Thought+that+the+conditioned+reflex+was+a+model+that+would+account+for+a+wide+
variety+of+phenomena+even+emotions!
1.
Fear+-sound,+falling
2.
Love+-pleasurable+stimulation
3.
Studied+babies,+and+identified+3+unconditioned+emotional+responses:+
Watson+believes+all+other+emotional+responses+are+conditional+responses
Rats
1.
Generalization+using+other+objects
2.
Little+Alberts
Both+produced+fear+responses+and+lasted+a+long+time
The+fear+responses+would+likely+persist+indefinitely+and+even+ridiculed+the+Freudian+
psychoanalysis+who+use+techniques+that+have+no+basis+of+reality+and+may+some+day+try+
to+treat+Albert's+phobia+
Operant+Conditioning:+Carrots+&+Sticks
Classical+conditioning:+focus+on+associations+between+stimuli:+target+is+largely+passive
Operant+conditioning:+focus+on+the+consequences+of+behavior:+target+is+quite+active,+
regulating+her+behavior+in+order+to+meet+hedonic+needs
The+Skinner+Box:+reward-punishment
Reinforcement:+increases+behavioral+response
Punishment:+decreases+behavioral+response
Schedules+of+Reinforcement
Acquisition:+continuous+reinforcement+boost+acquisition;+not+good+for+long+term;+good+
in+the+first+place
Extinction:+intermittent/partial+reinforcement+leads+to+gradual+extinction
Reacquisition
Social+Learning+Theory
Stimulus+Response
Stimulus+Organism+Response
Emphasis+on+"observation"+-organism+now+has+active+role+in+the+construction+of+
meaning
Learning
Thursday,+October+15,+2015
2:21+AM
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