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PSYB30 - Lec#3.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Connie Boudens

th Lecture #3 – WK3 – Jan 23 , 2013 Traits Part II The Big Five + ? In addition to the big five, what other traits should be incl.? - Honesty – Humility -> the inward-thinking side of agreeableness o Introverted component of agreeableness o Empirical question: can be answered by collecting and analysing that data - Intelligence? o Conceptuality like openness o Loads on conscientiousness o Depends on how you define it: problem solving (C), curiosity (O)  Could be either one - Sexuality? o Attractiveness, exclusivity, restraint, orientation, etc. (see text) o Overlap w/”Big 5” -> evidence is weighted against incl in Big 5 Is the FFM Universal? Universal: Invariant of culture and independent of learning - Is FFM – an artefact of development with WEIRD participants? - Derived in English using lexical approach -> not applicable across diff. languages o Assumes other languages will have words for same ideas (not always the case): has to be translated, then back-translated, in order to be accurate. However,…. o Validated in over 50 countries  Using the translated version or indigenous (develop FFM in the indigenous language) o Indigenous measures get sim. Results except:  Extraversion, agreeableness, not always distinct  has to do with social dominance NOT consistent in other cultures  Openness varies -> defined diff. in diff. cultures o Unique Traits? (ex. Filial piety in China)? – respect for elders and looking after juniors  Experience based system o More than 5 traits needed in some cultures Reliability of FFM lower in less developed countries - Potential reasons o Translations -? May not be accurate/adequate  Context and understanding of testing may be diff. o Item relevance -> items on the measure (ex. Extraversion) in strict hierarchies, question doesn’t make sense o Familiarity with test format -> never had to do a test in this format, familiarity affected test measure o Representative samples FFM in Tsimane Culture -> group of ppl in Bolivia, no contact with West (Hunting and Farming Culture) -Gerven, von Rueden, Massenkoff, Kaplan, & Lero vie, 2012 - Used translated version of FFM - Factor Analysis showed 2 factors (not 5) o Combination of E and A (prosociality) o Industriousness - Best descriptors the researchers could come up with o Cross-cultural evidence: if FFM universal? Are the (5) universal?  No? Personality in Everyday Life - Leadership roles - Musical preferences - Career/Work - Relationships Meta-analysis of the relationship btwn Big 5 traits and leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2012) - Meta-analysis: technique for combining findings from studies, (published and unpublished b/c of no results) o Equivalent of a large study with all the participants - (E) most consistent correlate of leadership - Followed by C, O, and N (neg.) in correlation - (A) had very low correlation with leadership o Less time and energy to be nice Career/Work Personality testing often used in HR -> which are valid and reliable MBTI common measure of match btwn ppl and work - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator -> follows Carl Jung’s theorising o Best work environment, how they interact w/other ppl in the work place, how they respond to requests - Jung’s Psychological Types o Introversion – extraversion (coined the terms and the definitions) o 4 psychological functions  Thinking – Feeling  Sensation – Intuition  Ppl have dominant (used more often) and auxillary (less often) functions o 8 Psychological types Introversion – draws nrg from within  Focuses on the inner world of thoughts and ideas Extraversion – draws nrg from the environment  Focus on ppl, things, outside inner self 4 Functions - Thinking and Feeling: ways of making decisions or judgments (flexible) o T -> logic, reason, principles o F -> emotions, personal values - Sensation and Intuition: ways of getting info about the world o Where their nrg comes from  If S-> through senses, focuses on details  If iN -> through “sixth sense”, focus on big picture (gut instinct) 8 Psychological Types - Introverted Thinking: o Interested in ideas, inner reality o Pay little attention to other ppl o Attitude: Introverted, Dominant Function: Thinking - Introverted Feeling: o Superficially reserved o Sympathetic and understanding of close friends or of others in need o Loving, but not demonstrative o Att: Introverted, DF: Feeling - Introverted Sensation: o Emphasizes exp. Which events trigger (not the events themselves) - E.g. musicians and artists - Introverted Intuition: o Stereotypical new age person o Concerned w/possibilities (not the
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