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Week 8.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Mark Schmuckler

Week 8 – Chapter 6: Attachment Primary emotions: fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness and interest - Do not req introspection or self-reflection Secondary emotions: pride, shame, guilt, jealousy and embarrassment - Emerge later in development and depend on our sense of self and our awareness of other’s reactions to our actions (the middle of 2 year of life) 3 Perspectives on Emotional Development 1. The Genetic-Maturational Perspective - Emotions best seen as products of biological factors - Studies of smiling (first smile in twin studies), support this role 2. The Learning Perspective - Useful in explaining individual diff in emotional expression - Diff expressions have diff onsets, frequencies and intensities in diff children - Can also elicit and reinforce fear responses 3. The Functionalist Perspective - Emotions serve to help us achieve our goals and adapt to our environment - Recognizes the social nature of emotions Reflex/Simple smiles: in newborns, spontaneous + appear to depend on infants internal state Stranger distress: a fear of strangers, emerges ~9 months of age Social referencing: process of “reading” emotional cues in others to determine how to act in an uncertain situation Separation protest: infant’s distress reaction of being separated from mother, peaks at ~15 months of age Emotional scripts: how children think about emotions, a complex scheme that enables a child to identify the emotional reaction that is likely to accompany a particular sort of event 3 ways families influence children’s emotions 1. Family members own patterns of emotional expressiveness serve as models for the child’s emotional expressiveness 2. Parents and siblings specific reactions to children’s emotions encourage or discourage certain pattern of emotional expressiveness 3. Parents often act as emotional coaches by talking about emotions and explaining and exploring children’s understanding of their own and other people’s emotional responses Theories of Attachment Psychoanalytic Theory: Freudian theory that babies become attached first to the mother’s breast and then to the mother herself as a source of oral gratification Learning theory: the mother provides food (primary reinforce) thus she acquires secondary reinforcement properties - Attachment is not automatic, it develops over time as a result of satisfying interactions with responsive adults Cognitive developmental theory (John Bowlby’s): to form attachments, infants must differentiate btw mother and stranger and understand that people exist independently of their interaction with them (object permanence) Ethological theory: both evolutionary theory + observation of animals helped shape this theory - Imprinting: develop an attachment to the first object they see during a brief, critical period after their birth - Development of mutual attachment (a relationship not simply a behaviour of either the infant or parent) - Suggestion biologically programmed How attachment evolves 4 Phases in the developmental of attachment 1. Pre-attachme
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