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lecture 2.odt

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

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– free will important to him Edward titchener – conscious experience – introspection- different from chroid's version of introspection- discussed later – e.g. what are you experiencing as you are experiencing it – structuralism – we can take conscious experience -we would understand it if we divided into pieces Darwin – natural selelction – important for functionalism – a specific school of psychology – functionalism- why we did things we did- not just enough to know conscious experience – but the underlying theme behind it – mind is adaptive – fittest minds surviveed James – consciousness= very personal – no way you could break into static elements- not how our mind works Behaviourism – disccussed later iin chapter 7 – believed that studying consciousness- cognitive experiences- was not to be used- focus more on predicting future behaviour instead of introspection – believed strongly in nurture – behaviour = more about reward and punishment – to encourage or prevent a behaviour The cognitive revolution – reward punishment technique didn't fully explain the behaviour technique – thought is really important – behaviour is not just enough – different aspects of modern psychology – memory thinking learning etc Video – joseph the psychologist – feeding chimpanzee – adding water to get the chip out a tube Knowing namese and dates – do not have to know the names of everysingle mentioned in the textbook- – know big names – learning – pathotical- e.g. pathog a person who does classical pathotical – standord – watson – PAG? In the development chapter – dates never worry about it 4 ways of knowing about the world – intuition – logic – authority- beliving an authority figure – observation- most important for science and psychology – empirical formula What is science? Science is not determined by what it studies but by how it studies it. What makes science science? 1. Determinism- the world is orderly place – so we can make predictions about how things work- science wouldn't make sense if world was completely chaotic - theory- how two or more variables relate to one another - variable- theory – good soil lead to good plant growth 2. Empiricism - as scinetist we learn through observations – not just logic and intuition - make observations and evaluate it 3. parsimony- say 2 or more theories explaining a set of data (empirical observartions)- which one do we go with? The rule states that we go with the simplest theory – the one that makes the fewest assumptions 4. Testability – everyone comes up with a theory. What distinguishes a scientific from a non scientific theory? - testability and falsifiability- possible to prove that the theory was false unfalsifieble- universe exist on a teardrop of a unicorn's eye - can't falsify it falsifiabale- all swans are white- noo you can see a black swan operational definition – definitions of theorietical constructs that make them testable and allow for making of predictions – sometimes variables are easy to measure – height, time, weight etc. – a lto of variables are not easily measurable- or dificult to define within a context of an experiment – construct- internal characteristics that cannot be directly observed – intelligence – e.g. is a theoretical construct – intelligence is importance becauase it helps predict a person's GPA – how do you measure it? - cant just a look at a person and say he is 7 – e.g. you have to operationaly define intelligence as IQ score or GPA– you define it – it's an example of a construct – personality- operationally have to define it – intoxication- blood alcohol level – 0.08- operational level – or use behaviour measure -straight line – use self-reported measure – survey – how intoxicated are you Scientific method – we have a theory- come up with a hypothesis from it – collect data – make observation – results – if theory supported/ rejected- different measures – hypothesis – operationalize variables – measure- data – evaluate – replicate/revise/report – make the decision – conseptual replication vs soome other replication e.g. theory- watching violent on TV leads to more aggressive behaviour hypothesis- adult man who watch simpsons = more aggressive to children Operationalize – simpson watchers/ non-simpson watchers – or a specific number of simpson episodes watched – operationally define aggression towards children- spanking kids? Important- a single study – even if most well executed experiement done once – doesn't tell you much Study designs – big difference between these type of studies – descriptive- least amount of control – experimental – most tight-knit control of the variables -allows drawing good conclusions – correlation- in the middle Descriptive studies – observing behaviour – a lto of done in fields such as anthropology and sometimes done in psychology – rare in psychology – usually just the first step of research – Shirley brice – did descriptive studies – children growing up in lower/higher socio-economic status homes and its results in their literacy. – She stayed in their homes and made observations about how parents interacted with kids – parents had more time in higher class- to interact with kids – read to them etc – Festinger et. All -social status- they looked at how – they bedded themselves in a cult called seekers- marian keech =- leader – the world was going to end by alliens- oinly seekers would survive – what happens if the prophecy fails? - psychologists wanted to see their reactions – when it didn't happen- marian keech – she went and said that the world was saved becausee of all these beleivers – Naturalistic observation- you are not actively part of the study – unlike seekers- you are not interacting -= you are just seeing how people behave from the side – Participant observation – embedding themselves in the situation – like seekers- active observation e.g. to see people 's behaviour instead of waiting on a bus- you see give people hi- fi- alternate their natural routine- notice their behaviour Correlational studies – differ from experimental because you are not manipulating these variables- you don't have a control over a lot of things -you are limited based on the conclusion you make – cell phojne/computer usage – depressed adolescence use computer/cell phone more often – people with more academic success = higher self esteem – you are not manipulating anything – you are just measuring – you can say there is a relationship but not causal claims – some of these case – are relationships we have – positive relationship – academic success and self esteem- one increases with the other – ** are you not manipulating the temperature (independent variable- dependent variable)– to see the effect on ice cream sales – negative relationship- two variables move in the opposite direction Why can't you make casal relationship? CORRELAITON does not equal CAUSATION 1. Directionality problem - Aand B are two variables we are interested in and we collected data on - A= academic success; B= self esteem - is it higher self-esteem leading to higher academic success or the vice versa? - can't make claims based on a correlation study 2. Third-variable problem - A= academic success; B= self esteem - all kinds of other variables that can cause changes in bothAand B –Aand B are not affecting each other in the first place e.g. high socioeconomic status – can lead to both high academic success and self esteem -some other unmeasured variables leading to the changes These are big problems – variables that you cannot manipulate so correlational studies is the best you can do Experiments – involve manipulating the variables – with temperature – if you change it by turning on or off the heaters – independent variable- you are manipulating – different across those different conditions in research study – Dependent variable- what you are measuring to see if it changes based on different levels of independent variable – dependent variable- test performance – academic success and self esteem – determining causal relationship – independent variable – manipulate self esteem- give them a test htat is a measure of their academic ability – treatment group- people that receive the independent variable – the treatment – manipulative feedback is the only thing that's changing their academic results- positive/ negative feedback – confound -any thing that is very systematic along the independent variable – e.g. by giving positive feedback you are not only manipulating their self-esteem - you are also manipulating their mood – by making them happy – mood= a confound -varied along with independent variable – what increases the test performance not self esteem – Now
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