Class Notes (839,240)
Canada (511,223)
Psychology (3,528)
PSY100H1 (1,637)
Lecture

lecture 2.odt

7 Pages
79 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Description
– free will important to him Edward titchener – conscious experience – introspection- different from chroid's version of introspection- discussed later – e.g. what are you experiencing as you are experiencing it – structuralism – we can take conscious experience -we would understand it if we divided into pieces Darwin – natural selelction – important for functionalism – a specific school of psychology – functionalism- why we did things we did- not just enough to know conscious experience – but the underlying theme behind it – mind is adaptive – fittest minds surviveed James – consciousness= very personal – no way you could break into static elements- not how our mind works Behaviourism – disccussed later iin chapter 7 – believed that studying consciousness- cognitive experiences- was not to be used- focus more on predicting future behaviour instead of introspection – believed strongly in nurture – behaviour = more about reward and punishment – to encourage or prevent a behaviour The cognitive revolution – reward punishment technique didn't fully explain the behaviour technique – thought is really important – behaviour is not just enough – different aspects of modern psychology – memory thinking learning etc Video – joseph the psychologist – feeding chimpanzee – adding water to get the chip out a tube Knowing namese and dates – do not have to know the names of everysingle mentioned in the textbook- – know big names – learning – pathotical- e.g. pathog a person who does classical pathotical – standord – watson – PAG? In the development chapter – dates never worry about it 4 ways of knowing about the world – intuition – logic – authority- beliving an authority figure – observation- most important for science and psychology – empirical formula What is science? Science is not determined by what it studies but by how it studies it. What makes science science? 1. Determinism- the world is orderly place – so we can make predictions about how things work- science wouldn't make sense if world was completely chaotic - theory- how two or more variables relate to one another - variable- theory – good soil lead to good plant growth 2. Empiricism - as scinetist we learn through observations – not just logic and intuition - make observations and evaluate it 3. parsimony- say 2 or more theories explaining a set of data (empirical observartions)- which one do we go with? The rule states that we go with the simplest theory – the one that makes the fewest assumptions 4. Testability – everyone comes up with a theory. What distinguishes a scientific from a non scientific theory? - testability and falsifiability- possible to prove that the theory was false unfalsifieble- universe exist on a teardrop of a unicorn's eye - can't falsify it falsifiabale- all swans are white- noo you can see a black swan operational definition – definitions of theorietical constructs that make them testable and allow for making of predictions – sometimes variables are easy to measure – height, time, weight etc. – a lto of variables are not easily measurable- or dificult to define within a context of an experiment – construct- internal characteristics that cannot be directly observed – intelligence – e.g. is a theoretical construct – intelligence is importance becauase it helps predict a person's GPA – how do you measure it? - cant just a look at a person and say he is 7 – e.g. you have to operationaly define intelligence as IQ score or GPA– you define it – it's an example of a construct – personality- operationally have to define it – intoxication- blood alcohol level – 0.08- operational level – or use behaviour measure -straight line – use self-reported measure – survey – how intoxicated are you Scientific method – we have a theory- come up with a hypothesis from it – collect data – make observation – results – if theory supported/ rejected- different measures – hypothesis – operationalize variables – measure- data – evaluate – replicate/revise/report – make the decision – conseptual replication vs soome other replication e.g. theory- watching violent on TV leads to more aggressive behaviour hypothesis- adult man who watch simpsons = more aggressive to children Operationalize – simpson watchers/ non-simpson watchers – or a specific number of simpson episodes watched – operationally define aggression towards children- spanking kids? Important- a single study – even if most well executed experiement done once – doesn't tell you much Study designs – big difference between these type of studies – descriptive- least amount of control – experimental – most tight-knit control of the variables -allows drawing good conclusions – correlation- in the middle Descriptive studies – observing behaviour – a lto of done in fields such as anthropology and sometimes done in psychology – rare in psychology – usually just the first step of research – Shirley brice – did descriptive studies – children growing up in lower/higher socio-economic status homes and its results in their literacy. – She stayed in their homes and made observations about how parents interacted with kids – parents had more time in higher class- to interact with kids – read to them etc – Festinger et. All -social status- they looked at how – they bedded themselves in a cult called seekers- marian keech =- leader – the world was going to end by alliens- oinly seekers would survive – what happens if the prophecy fails? - psychologists wanted to see their reactions – when it didn't happen- marian keech – she went and said that the world was saved becausee of all these beleivers – Naturalistic observation- you are not actively part of the study – unlike seekers- you are not interacting -= you are just seeing how people behave from the side – Participant observation – embedding themselves in the situation – like seekers- active observation e.g. to see people 's behaviour instead of waiting on a bus- you see give people hi- fi- alternate their natural routine- notice their behaviour Correlational studies – differ from experimental because you are not manipulating these variables- you don't have a control over a lot of things -you are limited based on the conclusion you make – cell phojne/computer usage – depressed adolescence use computer/cell phone more often – people with more academic success = higher self esteem – you are not manipulating anything – you are just measuring – you can say there is a relationship but not causal claims – some of these case – are relationships we have – positive relationship – academic success and self esteem- one increases with the other – ** are you not manipulating the temperature (independent variable- dependent variable)– to see the effect on ice cream sales – negative relationship- two variables move in the opposite direction Why can't you make casal relationship? CORRELAITON does not equal CAUSATION 1. Directionality problem - Aand B are two variables we are interested in and we collected data on - A= academic success; B= self esteem - is it higher self-esteem leading to higher academic success or the vice versa? - can't make claims based on a correlation study 2. Third-variable problem - A= academic success; B= self esteem - all kinds of other variables that can cause changes in bothAand B –Aand B are not affecting each other in the first place e.g. high socioeconomic status – can lead to both high academic success and self esteem -some other unmeasured variables leading to the changes These are big problems – variables that you cannot manipulate so correlational studies is the best you can do Experiments – involve manipulating the variables – with temperature – if you change it by turning on or off the heaters – independent variable- you are manipulating – different across those different conditions in research study – Dependent variable- what you are measuring to see if it changes based on different levels of independent variable – dependent variable- test performance – academic success and self esteem – determining causal relationship – independent variable – manipulate self esteem- give them a test htat is a measure of their academic ability – treatment group- people that receive the independent variable – the treatment – manipulative feedback is the only thing that's changing their academic results- positive/ negative feedback – confound -any thing that is very systematic along the independent variable – e.g. by giving positive feedback you are not only manipulating their self-esteem - you are also manipulating their mood – by making them happy – mood= a confound -varied along with independent variable – what increases the test performance not self esteem – Now
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit