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Gender Differences in Moral Orientation A metaAnalysis S Jaffee J Hyde Gilligans critique of Kohlbergs theory of moral reasoning and her assertion that two modes of moral reasoning justice and care exist have been the subject of debate within the field of psychMetaanalysis revealed small differences in the care orientation favoring females and small differences in the justice orientation favoring malesThese findings dont offer strong support for the claim that the care orientation is used predominantly by women and that the justice orientation is used predominantly b menGilligan wanted care and justice orientation o Caremaintaining relationships responding to the needs of others and a responsibility not to cause hurt females o Justiceprinciples of fairness and equity such as those assessed in conventional measures of moral reasoning malesGilligan argued that Kohlbergs moral judgment interview which is the most widely used measure of moral reasoning was gender biased because it was validated on an all male sample and because its scoring scheme characterized considerations of care and response as less sophisticated than considerations of justice and fairnessEarly research on kohlbergian moral development reported that stage 3 was the modal stage for females and stage 4 was the modal stage for malesStage 3 reasoning is characterized by desire to maintain relationshi
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