Developmental Psych – Lecture 11 (Nov 25)
How Do Peers Exert Their Influence?
Mechanism by which peers influence behaviour is the same way parents influence
Peer reinforcement and peer modelling
Pple like parents & teachers who are in a position to reward or punish the child can
function as people who can reinforce behaviour
But how can a peer punish or reward another peer
Anumber of ways peers can act to reinforce.
Gender appropriateness of behaviour
what was found that children were very quick to judge or punish kids who were acting in
a gender appropriate or inappropriate way. Kids can ostracize boys who plays with dolls instead
If the victim wants to fight back, then this might punish the bully, because bully isn't
getting the kind of reaction that he/she wants
Peers act as models of each other's behaviours all the time.
If one child watches another kid resisting temptation, they might do the same. So the
child has learned this ability through his/her peer.
You see modelling affects in sex type attitudes (gender typical attitudes are learned from
Objects of social comparison
You determine your ability or capability (whether you're a fast runner or not) by
comparing yourself to your peers, or other kids in the class.
The normative function of peer groups
One of the strongest impacts that peers have
Peer groups set explicit standards and norms for how to behave, dress, how to look, act
and talk. Children are responsive to these types of peer influences.
So how strongly do they conform to their peer groups?
Do they blindly conform?
Study was done to test how likely kids would conform (Grades 3-12)
Studied for pro-social and antisocial behaviours
What was found was that there is conformity to peer behaviour
For pro-social behaviour there isn't much change.
If everyone's going out to volunteer, they're likely to do it too. These are the pro-social
What about anti-social behaviour?
Conformity for anti-social acts increase over childhood. By the time they hit grade 12,
they show a strong drop in the likelihood that they'll give in to peer pressure.
However, the increase in this peer conformity during childhood is necessary because this
gives them a sense of stability; to differentiate themselves from family. When they have this
stability, they can differentiate themselves from the group.
Peer versus adult influences What happens when we have peer and adult influences?
Peers are pressuring them to act in 1 way whereas parents are encouraging them to act in
another way. Conflicting views
Belief that peers and adults have wide differences in the proper way to behave but really,
there are alot of similarities.
Parents and peers exert influences in different domains of the child's life. Ex: If you want
to know how to dress, what music to listen to, you would ask your friends about this. If you have
questions about your future career, you would ask your parents.
So parents and peers have different domains of influence.
Parents have a good deal of influence over the nature of the friends that the child has.
Kids who are securely attached have internalized their parents' standards so when they
look for friends, they tend to find friends who have the same general standards that they have. So
moreover, they all tend to share the same values.
So they don't butt heads like people think because they actually have a lot in common.
So far we've talked about 2 agents of socialization; family and peer groups. Both of these
are inrdrmal institutions; no rules by which peers and families operate.
3 agent is an institution which has a formal guideline; no other formal institution which
has much of an influence on children as much as a school
The goal of the school is for children to develop cognitive abilities that they will need
throughout the rest of their lives.
Schools are also important in terms of their social curriculum (which is not really formal)
This help students realize how they fit into their social world. Children are expected to
respect authority, co-operate with their peers.
Schools provide moral info on a variety of activities (racism, drug use) which can happen
within the school context & school also provides the context for peer interactions
Characteristics of effective schools
What makes a school effective?
Some schools are better than others
According to Rutter, effective schools are those that promote academic achievement. But
along with this they emphasize positive attitudes toward learning, low absenteeism, acquisition
of job-related info, and social skills. Some schools are successful in accomplishing these goals.
Lower middle-class income area (So same economic background for each school)
Assessed relative effectiveness of each of the schools
He looked at the performance of students at 4 diff periods (Grade 9 until Grade 12)
From the tests, he assessed 3 “bands”
Band 1 are students who did extremely well
Band 2 are intermediate
Band 3 are students who are low-achieving
So it was longitudinal study and the data showed interesting effects.
Students who were in effective schools ended up doing better on the tests.
If you take high performing kids and you put them in ineffective schools, then their outcomes were really bad (Band 1). Band 1s will be outperformed by intermediate group, and are
probably at the same level as the low achieving who are in effective schools.
So you can take a child who does initially well and stick them in a bad school, their
performance will suck even if they had initial ability.
Rutter and others have pointed to characteristics which are misconceptions about school
often argued that putting more money into school will make the school better. But there is
no simple relationship between this and the quality of education
The school has to have enough money to provide good basin programs and textbooks.
One you hit that level, putting extra money doesn't have an impact on child's performance.
Increasing teacher's salary doesn't make a difference provided that they have an appropriate level
So throwing more money doesn't necessarily have an affect on performance
often argued that smaller classes are better however, this doesn't predict better
Typical elementary size is 20-40
What they found was that really small classes (15-20 for early kindergarten years to
grade 3) then this has a beneficial impact on kids.
So when does class size have an impact?
When it comes to extracurricular activities
There's a variation as a function of school size
Smaller schools have alot more students enrolled in activities, because there are fewer
activities, but they each are involved in more activities.
But in terms of academic notions, there isn't much of an impact.
Belief that ability tracking of students is effectiveness. Procedure by which you take
students of similar academic performance & put them all together
You get the braniac class, sl