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Text Notes Chap 11, 12, 9, 16 excellent detailed description of text. 17 pgs! (psychological science) graduating mark: 91%

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Dan Dolderman

Note: need to know TAs research CH 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Development psychology: changes in physiology, cognition and social behaviour over a lifetime Mind development, social development What Shapes A Child Genes, but the environment determines which are expressed making you who you are Both nature and nurture, Development starts in the womb Physical development o Genes govern prenatal development of human nervous system. Specific sequence o Hormones that circulate in the womb influence the developing fetus Teratogens o Environmental influences can have adverse effects on a developing fetus. o Teratogens: agents that can cause abnormal development in the womb (FAS) brain development promotes learning Newborns capable of processing some sensory stimuli Have a variety of basic reflexes that aid survival o The rooting reflex: sucking Early brain growth has two imp aspects o 1.) specific areas w.i the brain mature and become functional o 2.) regions of the brain learn communicate with each other through synaptic connections myelination synaptic pruning: use it or lose it in addition to growth determined by genetic instruction, the brain is also a highly plastic organ o early environments, rat studies genes provide instructions, but very effected by environment: nature and nurture critical learning periods o periods where certain connections are most easily made. o critical periods hypothesis: Biologically determined time periods Environmental input is important but biology determines when an organism need to receive a particular input in order to make use of it. o sensitive periods: post genie, brain primed to aquire certain skills. Not critical b/c learning still possible after but not as successful. attachment promotes survival social development o not only shaped by biological development but also their early interaction with others attachment attachment across species o imprinting: goslings will impirnt themselves on those around them. o Harlows monkey Freud: mothers soure of libidinal pleasure Behviourists: secondary reinforcement Harlow: the importance of contact comfort in social development Attachment style 1 o Mary ainsworth, the strange situation test Secure attachment Avoidant attachment Anxious-ambivalent attachment o Children with behavior problems are more likely to be insecurely attached. Chemistry of attachment o The hormone oxytoxin: related to social behaviours incl infant/caregiver attachment o Affects both of them promoting attachment Parental style can affect childrens well being Some believe that the importance of parents has been overemphasized Childrens biologically based temperaments as the most imp aspect of parent-child interaction. The fit btw child temperament and parents behaviours is the most imp in determining social development Parents have multiple influences over their children Interaction btw genes and environmental influences How do children learn about their worlds? Individual loa, looking at the development of cognitive skill of young children Perception introduces the world Obtain information from the world through their senses Preferential looking technique o Infants look longer at stimuli that interest them Orienting reflex o Pay more attn to the novel stimuli Vision o The preferential looking technique is used to determine an infants visual acuity Bold black and white patterns o Increase in visual acuity probably due to the development of the infants visual cortex and cones in the retina o Bionocular disparity: ability to perceive depth 3-6 mos Auditory perception in infants o By 6 mos nearly adult levels o Some memory for sounds (ie mother voice in womb) Piaget emphasized stages of development Children go through stages of cognitive development that reflect different ways of thinking about the world (or schemas) o Assimilation: a new experience is placed in an existing schema o Accommodation: a schema is adapted of expanded to incorporate the new experience 1.) sensorimotor stage (birth-2) o acquire info only though their sense and react reflexively to objects o object permanence: the understanding that an object continues to exists when out of view o recognizes the self as an agent of action. Different from objects 2.) preoperational stage (2-7) o think symbolically, but not yet operationally (imagining the logical outcome) 2 o classifies objects by a certain feature o learns language, but thinking still egocentric 3.) concrete operational stage (7-12) o understand operations: or can figure out the world by thinking how event are related o understands number and mass and weight o classifies objects according to several features 4.) formal operational (12+) o abstract thinking o becomes concerned with hypothetical, future and ideological problems many challenges to this view o little room for individuals, or cultures o doesnt have to follow such strict stages Infants have innate knowledge recent research: children understand much more, much earlier o piagets tasks simply asked to much of them understanding the laws of nature: physics o perceive movement, can use movement to determine if an object is continuous o what is necessary to support an object in space understanding the laws of nature: math o we are born with certain numerical abilities, such as the ability to understand quantity o understand concept more or less, when properly motivated o Piaget underestimated the mental capacities of young children Memory improves over childhood The development of memory imp, build upon things they already know By 18mos, they can remember an event for several weeks. Infantile amnesia o : inability to remember event from early childhood (frued) o theories why not (language, autobiographical) inaccurate memory o source amnesia: difficulty knowing where they learned something o confabulate: make things up. False narratives Humans learn from interacting with others theory of mind: knowing that others have mental states and using that information to infer what another is thinking young children are less egocentric then piaget belived. Realize that actions are intentional. o Begin to read intentions in year one. o False belief test: children undertand that ppl sometimes act based on false information Childrens development of theory of mind and success at the false belief test coincide with frontal lobes maturing o Prefrontal brain regions: when asked to think about others mental states Language develops in an orderly fashion The stages of language development are remarkably uniform across individuals From 0-60,000 o Language can be seen as a hierarchical structure 3 o Born understanding the differences in languages o Can distinguish btw diff phonemes: the minimal speech sounds o Speech production follows a distinct path First morphemes then prefomatives then true words Telegraphic speech: bare bone words formed according to sentence structure. Universal grammar o Chomsky: language must be governed by universal grammar or the innate knowledge of a set of universal and specifically linguistic elements and relations that form the heart of all human languages Deep structure: the implicit meanings of sentences We automatically transform surface structure to deep structure. The underlying meaning of sentences is not what we remember. Humans born with a language acquisition device that contains universal grammar, but exposure to overs native language narrows down which grammatical rules are learned Environment and culture. Social context influences language development which in turn influences cognitive development Sensitive periods o (critical periods are really sensitive periods: genie) o interactions across cultures can shape language creole: younger generations take the nonconforming language, apply rules to it and change i
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