Treatment of Psychological Disorders
The treatment psychotherapy was fathered by Freud who took Josef Breurs research with
Anna O that proved that talking to clients helped relieve some physical ailments.
How many types of treatments are there?
Procedures can be classified into three main categories; insight therapies, behavioural therapies,
and biomedical therapies.
What are insight therapies?
This is the traditional Freudian “talk therapy”. This can be done on individual to individual or in
What are behavioural therapies?
This is based off of learning. The psychotherapist tries to directly alter behaviour (phobias,
maladaptive behaviour) through classical, operant, or observational conditioning.
What are biomedical therapies?
These therapies attempt to work on the biological level. Drug therapy and electro shock therapy are
often in this category. There are limitations on what kind of psychological, usually only a psychiatrist
or a person with a medical degree, that can conduct these sorts of therapies.
Who can provide treatment for mental disorders?
There are several ways to get professional mental health. However the two primary careers are for
psychologists and psychiatrists. Clinical social workers, counsellors and marriage counsellors can
also do some treatment.
What are psychologists?
There are two kinds that can provide therapy; clinical psychologists (treatment of full-fledged
disorders) and counselling psychologists (everyday adjustment problems). Both require a doctoral
degree, which is a highly competitive degree to get accepted into. It is followed by a one year
internship. Their techniques are usually behavioural. However they also do psychological testing,
psychotherapy and conducting of research.
What are psychiatrists?
This profession specializes in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. The disorders they
treat are often some of the more severe, such as schizophrenia. This profession requires an M.D
degree, four years of course work in medical school, and a four year apprenticeship in a residency
at a hospital. There is an increase in drug therapy in this profession. They use more psychoanalysis
What other kinds of people can provide professional treatment?
Clinical social workers: Masters degree. Work with patients to ease way back into community.
Psychiatric nurses: hospital inpatient treatment. Bachelors or masters in their field.
Counsellors: Schools, colleges, youth centers, etc. Masters degree. Usually have a specific kind of
counselling (marital, etc).
What are insight therapies?
These therapies use verbal interaction to solve the patients problems. There are several ways to go
about doing this.
What is psychoanalysis? This was developed by Freud. He believed that getting to the root problems hidden in the
unconscious would alleviate psychological problems. These problems were often caused by our
pleasure principle and the constant aggression between the Id, the superego and the ego. In order
to hide some of our unconscious emotions we would use defence mechanisms.
What is the therapeutic procedure used in psychoanalysis.
Probing the unconscious is the technique that psychoanalysis uses. It relies on two things; free
association and dream analysis. Often, transference is encouraged during sessions.
Free association is allowing the client to talk with no censorship. This often leads to the client
pouring out very deep secrets, feelings or ideas.
Dream analysis is the training of clients to remember their dreams and recall them in
sessions so that the counsellor can weed out hidden meanings or etc.
Transference is the process or behaviour that the client unconsciously starts treating his
therapist as one of his relationship partners. So he or she might start treating the therapist like an
overprotecting mother or inadequate father.
These processes are often meet with resistance, especially to the interpretations the counsellor has.
What is the psychodynamic approach to therapy?
Psychodynamic therapy is a modern version of Freud’s original psychoanalytical therapy. This was
necessary to do for changing times and changing clientele. Such revisions where those that where
made by Carl Jung and Alfred.
What is client-centered therapy?
This came from the human potential movement which was stimulated by Carl Rogers. It focuses on
providing emotional support. The theory behind this therapy is in contradiction to Freud’s; people
are anxious because they have an incongruence between their self-concept and reality and the fear
of people telling you, or recognizing that. This is ultimately rooted in peoples need of acceptance
from others. This is what client-centered therapy tries to stop and tries to, instead, foster personal
acceptance and growth. An important factor of this therapy is therapeutic climate. Interpretation
and advice on the part of the therapist is kept at a minimum.
What did Rogers mean by therapeutic climate?
Therapeutic climate is a climate of emotional security that is essential for the therapy to work. It
was to be achieved in three ways;
Genuineness: Honest and spontaneous communication
Unconditional positive regard: Acceptance of person.
Empathy: Understand world from clients point of view.
What is the function of client-centered therapy?
The therapist is to act like a mirror to the client; bouncing back ideas, thoughts, or feelings with
heightened clarity. This is supposed to help the client realize things and grow further.
What is emotion-focused couples therapy?
Helping couples work out what emotional needs are not meet in their relationship.
What is emotion-focused therapy?
Based off of the work of Carl Rogers, emotion focused therapy on acknowledging and working with
the underlying emotions of the client.
What are positive psychology inspired therapies?
These therapies have grown from positive psychology (a psychology that looks at all the positive
aspects of humans). In this field are therapies like well-being therapy and positive psychotherapy. What is well-being therapy?
Created by Giovanni Fava it attempts to allow the person self-acceptance, personal growth and etc.
Great for treatment of anxiety and mood disorders.
What is positive psychotherapy?
Created by Martin Seligman, it attempts to help the client recognize their strengths, find meaning in
their life, try to make positive experiences and savour them as well as forgive those who have
wronged them. It has proven to be very effective for depression.
What is group therapy?
This type of therapy came out during World War II and was based off of insight therapies. The only
difference is that instead of one client the therapist treats several at a time.
What is the function of the participants in group therapy?
The participants are screened so that there will be congruency between the people. Most often you
are not there for only yourself but to act as a therapist to the others as well. The therapists main
responsibility lies in selecting the participants, making sure the participants are going in the right
direction and protecting them from harm. The therapist and participants are mainly on equal footing
with the therapist remaining mostly in the background and being a model for behaviour.
What are the advantages of group therapy?
Group therapy is often cheaper but it is also a good way to realize that you are not alone in your
problems and have an op