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PSY421 lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Nick Rule

Sex vs. gender: what’s the difference? Sex: biological/physiological: • Men and women • Examples: women menstruate • What’s between your legs? Gender: • Social/cultural • Masculine and feminine • Examples: women do more housework, men earn more money • What’s between your ears? Male and female are adjectives Men and women are nouns Relevance to person perception: • Can categorize sex o Discrete groups Can assess/measure gender • Continuua • Clusters by sex Cues from the body • Appearance o Compared to women, men tend to be…  Larger (bones, muscles)  Darker  Shaped differently All sequelae of hormones 2-dimension motion perception Motion (kozlowski & cutting, 1977) • Point light displays used to judge sex • Point lights attached in 6 places o Wrist, elbows, ankles, knees, hips, shoulders Experiment 1: judge dynamic movement Experiment 2: judge still sets of dots 1 Motion • In expt 1 noticed differences b/w sexes in speed and arm –swing • Speed and arm-swing are positively correlated • Tested in exp 3 expt 4 Experiment 3: arm –swing • 5 types: normal, hands in pockets, hands at sides (w/o stiffening upper body), larger than usual, exaggerated so that forearm was horizontal • No significant effects: o Categorization fell below chance o No increase/decrease in apparent’“maleness” with swinging or stiffening Experiment 4: walking speed • Matched each T’s normal speed to metronome • Increase 8&16 strides/min, decrease 8&16 strides/min • Speed didn’t affect men but faster speed helped to ID women Experiment 5: tested parts • Like Johansson video: upper and lower body • Upper body more useful than lower body • Ankles alone allow for accurate judgment • Hips surprisingly unimportant on their own Motion (tassinary & Johnson, 2005) • Sex is inferred from morphology • Gender is inferred from motion Study 1A 25 bodies: 5 WHR’s x 5 levels of sway swagger • Morphology: o Sex: hourglass figure more often thought female o Gender: hourglass figures rated more feminine • Motion: o Sex: swaying walkers more often thought female o Gender: swaying walkers rated more female Motion (tussinary & Johnson, 2005) • Sex is inferred from morphology • Gender is inferred from motion 2 Study 1B: 5 bodies: mid-value WHR x 5 levels of sway swagger 2 conditions: sex-specified (Ps told all M or F), sex unspecified (judge sex_ Study 2: 5 bodies: mid value WHR x 5 levels of sway swagger P’s made sex and gender judgments Infer sex from gender other than the other way around Conclusion: Point light finding show sex judged from motion This occurs through inference Behavior: • Men more dominant than women o Men take up more space o Swagger vs. sway Emphasize upper body strength Across the lifespan • Sex-typed differences vary with hormones but also behavior o Peak differences during child-bearing years o More behavioral differences in adolescence o Less important in elderly o Differences subtle but detectable among children Cues from the voice • What makes a voice male or female o Anatomical differences o Physiological differences o Behavioral differences Anatomical differences • Throat shape/structure • Laryngeal prominence Physiological differences • Hormones and body size • Energy and speed Behavioral differences • Expressions of dominance o Range restriction o Curtness  Popularly regarded as masculine 3  Not an actual sex difference (mehl et al., 2007) • 210 women, 186 men (all students) Recorded every 12.5 min for 30 s ` 17 hrs. /day Women ` 16 215 words ( Word choice, tone, style Study 1: convo’s b/w friends and strangers With and without seeing each other (curtain between them) Transcripts scored for “female speech register” 1. Empty adjectives (e.g. cool, weird) 2. Tag questions (e.g., “nice out, isn’t it”? 3. Hedges (e.g. kinda, sorta, like) 4. Use of “so” Women used “female register” more than men No effects of curtain or interlocuer Study 2: inquiries at an info booth Experimenter eavesdropped nearby and coded requester’s speech Transcripts scored for “female speech register” 1. Hedges (kinda, sorta, I don’t know, like) 2. Politeness (please, excuse me, thanks vs. thank you very much) 3. Verb form (could you, would you) 4. Initial contact (hi, excuse me) 5. Directness (“I wonder if you could tell me…vs.…where is…) Mixed effects: only men speaking too men differed *(less use of female register) Interactions too short? Contect focused more on politeness (e.g. hedges) Well-established cultural ritual (rituals diminishes sex differences) Study 3: interactions at a police station Experimenter eavesdropped nearby and coded speech of police and civilian Transcripts scored for “female speech register” 1. Hedges (Cultural variability US and Korean Ts reciting native alphabets Voices rated by (US/Korean/ Korean –American) Ps Traits: Dominance – submissive, strong- weak, shrewd – naïve, competent – incompetent, cold – warm Qualities: loud – soft, slow – rapid, deep – high, clear
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