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Lec 5.docx

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Hywel Morgan

Lec 5  Diagnosis First Step Assessment “What am I looking at” Second Step  Diagnosis Third Step  Treatment All three are ongoing processes • Diagnosis  Contentious issue in clinical psychology • Benefit o Significant benefits o Selection of treatment (most significant benefit of diagnosis) • Harms o Significant harms o Stigma (most significant harm) Applying a label  Labelled as their disorder  Psychology trying to abandon labelling • Many attempts to develop systems to classify disorders, example DSM5 o Current classification system used in NorthAmerica o DSM tries to statistically classify normal behaviour but fails  DSM1  1955  DSM2  1960s  DSM3  1970s late  DSM3R  revised to reflect different statistics  DSM4  1990s New categories, removal of some categories • Not compatible with ICD  DSM4TRlate 90s Text revision, new version revised text (elaborative)  DSM5  May 2013 Attempt to use more statistical norms (make it more statistical) o Another goal was to make it 100% compatible with ICD. o DSM contains the compatible description of the disorder in ICD10  However ICD11 comes out next year  ICD includes all pathology o DSM authored and published byAmerican PsychiatricAssociation o Amedical tool o Psychologist have significant input • Classification system  the goal is to identify syndromes of abnormal behaviour • Syndromes  Set of symptoms that occur together regularly • Only psychologist and psychiatrists can use DSM5 to diagnose • DSM5 not used by rest of the world • ICD  International classification of disease o Current version: 10 o Used by rest of the world o ICD10  Published by World Health Organization  UN o Significant overlap between DSM and ICD o Uses normative data for the rest of the world • 100% overlap does not occur because there are disorders that ICD consider abnormal that DSM doesn’t and vice versa. • BiologicalAssessment and Diagnosis • Genetic • Neurochemical • Images o If you have a psychopathology, it is most likely you would receive an image process  Look at the brain and compare to that of normal individual  To find biological cause of what is wrong  Is there morphological differences in your brain?  Does your brain function physiologically different? o Structural  Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) scan is most common method to observe brain • X-Ray machine • To get a 2-D or 3-D image • CT Scan cheaper  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • More indepth • Does not use X-Ray • Uses magnetics • Changes electron polarity in the magnets around subjects • Gives HD picture inside tissue o Functional  Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan  looks at what parts of brain are active using radiation • Inject radioactive glucose into brain and measure radiation in the parts that glucose is most used • Not used anymore because of new method  Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI)  Uses a slightly adjusted MRI procedure • What Makes a Good Classification System • German scientist Kreplin was first to define categories to classify psychological disorders • Criteria of good cl
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